A CFD Study of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in Circular Pipeflow
 D.Wen, Y.Ding, Experimental investigation into convective heat
transfer of nanofluids at the entrance region under laminar flow
conditions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004)
 S.Zeinali Heris, S.G.Etemad, M.Nasr Esfahany, Experimental
investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat
transfer, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 33
 K.S.Hwang, S.K.Jang, S.U.S.Chio, Flow and convective heat transfer
characteristics of water-based Al2O3 nanofluids in fully developed
laminar flow regime, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer,
52 (2009) 193-199.
 D.Kim, Y.Kwon, Y.Cho, C.Li, S.Cheong, Y.Hwang, J.Lee, D.Hong, and
S.Moon, Convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids under
laminar and turbulent flow conditions, Current Applied Physics, 9
 U.Rea, T.McKrell, L.W.Hu, J.Buongiorno, Laminar convective heat
transfer and viscous pressure loss of alumina-water and zirconia-water
nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52 (2009)
 R.Ben Mansour, N.Galanis, C.T.Nguyen, Experimental study of mixed
convection with water Al2O3 nanofluid in inclined tube with uniform
wall heat flux, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50 (2011)
 T.H.Nassan, S.Zeinali Heris, S.H.Noie, A comparison of experimental
heat transfer characteristics for Al2O3/water and CuO/water nanofluids
in square cross-section duct, International Communications in Heat and
Mass Transfer, 37 (2010) 924 - 928.
 L.S. Sundar and K.V.Sharma, Turbulent heat transfer and friction factor
of Al2O3 Nanofluid in circular tube with twisted tape inserts,
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53 (2010) 1409 -
 B.Farajollahi, S.Gh.Etemad, M.Hojjat, Heat transfer of nanofluids in a
shell and tube heat exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass
Transfer, 53 (2010) 12 - 17.
 Y.Xuan, Q.Li, Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow
features of nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer, 125 (2003) 151-155.
 R.S.Vajjha, D.K.Das, D.P.Kulkarni, Development of new correlations
for convective heat transfer and friction factor in turbulent regime for
nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53 (2010)
4607 - 4618.
 M.Nasiri, S.Gh.Etemad, R.Bagheri, Experimental heat transfer of
nanofluid through an annular duct, International Communications in
Heat and Mass Transfer, 38 (2011) 958-963.
 S.Sonawane, K.Patankar, A.Fogla, B.Puranik, U.Bhandarkar, S.Sunil
Kumar, An experimental investigation of thermo-physical properties
and heat transfer performance of Al2O3-Aviation Turbine Fuel
nanofluids, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31 (2011) 2841 - 2849.
 S.E.B.Maiga, S.J.Palm, C.T.Nguyen, G.Roy, N.Galanis, Heat transfer
enhancement by using nanofluids in forced convection flows,
International Journal of Heat and Fluid flow, 26 (2005) 530 - 546.
 M.Akbari, A.Behzadmehr, F.Shahraki, Fully developed mixed
convection in horizontal and inclined tubes with uniform heat flux
using nanofluid, International Journal of Heat and Fluid flow, 29
(2008) 545 - 556.
 V. Bianco, F. Chiacchio, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Numerical investigation
of nanofluids forced convection in circular tubes, Applied Thermal
Engineering, 29 (2009) 3632 - 3642.
 R. Lotfi, Y. Saboohi, A.M. Rashidi, Numerical study of forced
convective heat transfer of Nanofluids: Comparison of different
approaches, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer,
37 (2010) 74 - 78.
 V. Bianco, O. Manca, S. Nardini, Numerical investigation on
nanofluids turbulent convection heat transfer inside a circular tube,
International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50 (2011) 341-349.
 M. Akbari, N. Galanis, A. Behzadmehr, Comparative analysis of single
and two-phase models for CFD studies of nanofluid heat transfer,
International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50 (2011) 1343 - 1354.
 B.C. Pak, Y.-I. Cho, Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed
fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles, Experimental Heat
Transfer, 11 (1998) 151-155.
 V. Gnielinski, New equations for heat and mass transfer in turbulent
pipe and channel flow, International Chemical Engineering, 16 (1976)
 F.M. White, Viscous Fluid Flow, McGraw Hill, New York, 1991.
 J. Buongiorno, Convective transport in nanofluids, Journal of Heat
Transfer, 128 (2006) 240-250.
 J.-H. Lee, K.S. Hwang, S.P. Jang, B.H. Lee, J.H. Kim, S.U.S. Choi, C.J.
Choi, Effective viscosity and thermal conductivities of aqueous
nanofluids containing low volume concentrations of Al2O3
nanoparticles, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51