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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29110

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3D Sensing and Mapping for a Tracked Mobile Robot with a Movable Laser Ranger Finder
This paper presents a sensing system for 3D sensing and mapping by a tracked mobile robot with an arm-type sensor movable unit and a laser range finder (LRF). The arm-type sensor movable unit is mounted on the robot and the LRF is installed at the end of the unit. This system enables the sensor to change position and orientation so that it avoids occlusions according to terrain by this mechanism. This sensing system is also able to change the height of the LRF by keeping its orientation flat for efficient sensing. In this kind of mapping, it may be difficult for moving robot to apply mapping algorithms such as the iterative closest point (ICP) because sets of the 2D data at each sensor height may be distant in a common surface. In order for this kind of mapping, the authors therefore applied interpolation to generate plausible model data for ICP. The results of several experiments provided validity of these kinds of sensing and mapping in this sensing system.
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[1] Toyomi Fujita and Yuya Kondo, "3D Terrain Measurement System with Movable Laser Range Finder", Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Workshop on Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR 2009), 2009.
[2] M. Hashimoto, Y. Matsui, and K. Takahashi, "Moving-object tracking with in-vehicle multi-laser range sensors," Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 367-377, 2008.
[3] T. Ueda, H. Kawata, T. Tomizawa, A. Ohya, and S. Yuta, "Mobile SOKUIKI Sensor System-Accurate Range Data Mapping System with Sensor Motion," in Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Autonomous Robots and Agents.
[4] K. Ohno and S. Tadokoro, "Dense 3D map building based on LRF data and color image fusion," in 2005 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2005.(IROS 2005), 2005, pp. 2792-2797.
[5] J. Poppinga, A. Birk, and K. Pathak, "Hough based terrain classification for realtime detection of drivable ground," Journal of Field Robotics, vol. 25, no. (1-2), pp. 67-88, 2008.
[6] A. Nuchter, K. Lingemann, and J. Hertzberg, "Mapping of rescue environments with kurt3d," in In Proc. IEEE SSRR 2005, 2005, pp. 158-163.
[7] Z. Nemoto, H. Takemura, and H. Mizoguchi, "Development of Smallsized Omni-directional Laser Range Scanner and Its Application to 3D Background Difference," in Industrial Electronics Society, 2007. IECON 2007. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE, 2007, pp. 2284-2289.
[8] L. Iocchi, S. Pellegrini, and G. Tipaldi, "Building multi-level planar maps integrating LRF, stereo vision and IMU sensors," in Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, 2007. SSRR 2007. IEEE International Workshop on, 2007, pp. 1-6.
[9] R. Sheh, M. Kadous, C. Sammut, and B. Hengst: "Extracting terrain features from range images for autonomous random stepfield traversal," in Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics, 2007. SSRR 2007. IEEE International Workshop on, 2007, pp. 1-6.
[10] P. J. Besl and N. D. Mckay: A method for registration of 3-d shapes, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 14(2), 239-256, August 2002.
[11] Nuchter, A., Lingemann, K., Hertzberg, J. and Surmann, H., "6D SLAM-3D mapping outdoor environments," Journal of Field Robotics, vol. 24, issue 8-9, pp.699-722, 2007.
[12] S. Thrun, M. Montemerlo, and A. Aron, "Probabilistic terrain analysis for high-speed desert driving," in Proceedings of Robotics Science and Systems Conference, 2006.
[13] Nagatani, K., Matsuzawa, T., Yoshida, K., "Scan-point planning and 3-d map building for a 3-d laser range scanner in an outdoor environment", Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol. 62, pp. 207-217, 2010.
[14] A. Kehagias, J. Djugash, and S. Singh,"Range-only SLAM with Interpolated Range Data," tech. report CMU-RI-TR-06-26, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2006.
[15] Hokuyo Automatic Co., Ltd.: in
[16] T. Barrera , A. Hast and E. Bengtsson "Incremental spherical linear interpolation", Proc. SIGRAD, vol. 13, pp. 7 2004.

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