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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29414

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Adverse Curing Conditions and Performance of Concrete: Bangladesh Perspective
Concrete is the predominant construction material in Bangladesh. In large projects, stringent quality control procedures are usually followed under the supervision of experienced engineers and skilled labors. However, in the case of small projects and particularly at distant locations from major cities, proper quality control is often an issue. It has been found from experience that such quality related issues mainly arise from inappropriate proportioning of concrete mixes and improper curing conditions. In most cases external curing method is followed which requires supply of adequate quantity of water along with proper protection against evaporation. Often these conditions are found missing in the general construction sites and eventually lead to production of weaker concrete both in terms of strength and durability. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the performance of general concreting works of the country when subjected to several adverse curing conditions that are quite common in various small to medium construction sites. A total of six different types of adverse curing conditions were simulated in the laboratory and samples were kept under those conditions for several days. A set of samples was also submerged in normal curing condition having proper supply of curing water. Performance of concrete was evaluated in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, chloride permeability and drying shrinkage. About 37% and 25% reduction in 28-day compressive and tensile strength were observed respectively, for samples subjected to most adverse curing condition as compared to the samples under normal curing conditions. Normal curing concrete exhibited moderate permeability (close to low permeability) whereas concrete under adverse curing conditions showed very high permeability values. Similar results were also obtained for shrinkage tests. This study, thus, will assist concerned engineers and supervisors to understand the importance of quality assurance during the curing period of concrete.
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[1] Parveen, S., Rana, S., and Fangueiro, R. "A Review on Nanomaterial Dispersion, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites," Journal of Nanomaterials, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013. (DOI: 10.1155/2013/710175)
[2] Manzur, T. and Yazdani, N. "Effect of Different Parameters on Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites," Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2016. (DOI:10.1007/s13369-016-2181-8)
[3] Manzur, T., Yazdani, N. and Emon, A. B. "Potential of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Repair Material," Journal of Nanomaterials, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016, Article ID 1421959. (DOI: 10.1155/2016/1421959)
[4] Manzur, T., and Yazdani, N. “Optimum Mix Ratio for Carbon Nanotubes in Cement Mortar,” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 19(5), 2015, pp. 1405-1412. (DOI: 10.1007/s12205-014-0721-x)
[5] Manzur, T., Yazdani, N. and Emon, M. A. B. "Effect of Carbon Nanotube Size on Compressive Strengths of Nanotube Reinforced Cementitious Composites," Journal of Materials, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014, Article ID 960984. (DOI: 10.1155/2014/960984)
[6] Manzur, T., and Yazdani, N. “Importance of Flow Values in Qualitative Evaluation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cementitous Matrix,” Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 25(1), pp. 71-80.
[7] Emon, M. A. B., Manzur, T., and Yazdani, N. "Improving performance of light weight concrete with brick chips using low cost steel wire fiber," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 106, 2015, pp. 575-583.
[8] Afroz, S., Rahman, F., Iffat, S., and Manzur, T. "Sorptivity and Strength Characteristics of Commonly Used Concrete Mixes of Bangladesh," International Conference on Recent Innovation in Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development, DUET, Gazipur, Bangladesh, December 2015.
[9] Bosunia, S. Z., and Chowdhury, J. R. "Durability of Concrete in Coastal Areas of Bangladesh," Journal of Civil Engineering, IEB, vol. CE 29, No. 1, pp 41-53, 2001.
[10] Manzur, T., Iffat, S., and Noor, M. A. "Efficiency of Sodium Poly-Acrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete Under Adverse Curing Condition," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015, Article ID: AMSE 685785. (DOI: 0.1155/2015/685785)
[11] Iffat, S., Manzur, T., and Noor, M. A. "Durability of Internally Cured Concrete Using Locally Available Low Cost Light Weight Aggregate," KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 2016. (DOI: 10.1007/s12205-016-0793-x)
[12] Rumman, R., Kamal, M. R., Manzur, T., and Noor, M. A. "Durability Performance of Locally Produced OPC and PCC Cement Concretes," International Conference on Recent Innovation in Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development, DUET, Gazipur, Bangladesh, December 2015.
[13] Rumman, R., Kamal, M. R., Manzur, T., and Noor, M. A. " Comparison Of CEM I and CEM II Cement Concretes in Terms of Water Permeability," The 3rd International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development (ICCESD2016), KUET, Khulna, Bangladesh, February 2016.
[14] ASTM C136-06, Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006.
[15] ASTM C128-12, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.
[16] ASTM C29-09, Standard Test Method for Bulk Density ("Unit Weight") and Voids in Aggregate, West Conshohocken, PA, 2009.
[17] ASTM C187–11e1, Standard Test Method for Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement. West Conshohocken, PA, 2011.
[18] ASTM C109/C109M-13, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or (50-mm) Cube Specimens). West Conshohocken, PA, 2013.
[19] ASTM C39–14a, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, West Conshohocken, PA, 2005.
[20] ASTM C 496/C496M-11, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011.
[21] ASTM C 1202-12, Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.
[22] Iffat, S., Emon, A. B., Manzur, T., and Ahmad, S. I. "An Experiment on Durability Test (RCPT) of Concrete According to ASTM Standard Method using Low-Cost Equipments," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 974, 2014, pp. 335-340.
[23] ASTM C157/C157M-08(2014)e1, Standard Test Method for Length Change of Hardened Hydraulic-Cement Mortar and Concrete, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014.
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