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An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers
In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.
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[1] L. Vendors, B. Kellison, S. Grid, and A. Gtm, “Transformer Monitoring Markets, 2013-2020: Technologies,” 2013. (Online). Available:
[2] D. Susa, “Dynamic Thermal Modelling of Power Transformers,” 2005.
[3] J. Declercq and W. Van Der Veken, “Accurate hot spot modeling in a power transformer leading to improved design and performance,” 1999 IEEE Transm. Distrib. Conf. (Cat. No. 99CH36333), vol. 2, 1999.
[4] M. Rosner, J. Weenen, and X. H. X. Hao, “Benefits of comprehensive and interactive on-line monitoring and expert systems for power transformers,” 2008 Int. Conf. Cond. Monit. Diagnosis, pp. 2–6, 2008.
[5] R. Heywood and S. Ryder, “Why Transformers Fail by Hongzhi Ding,” pp. 1–18.
[6] “ABB Remote condition monitoring.” (Online). Available:
[7] “GE Monitoring and Diagnostics.” (Online). Available:
[8] “Alstom MS 3000 Transformers’ monitoring system.” (Online). Available:
[9] J. Li, T. Jiang, and S. Grzybowski, “Hot spot temperature models based on top-oil temperature for oil immersed transformers,” in 2009 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, 2009, pp. 55–58.
[10] D. M. Robalino Vanegas and S. M. Mahajan, “Correlation between hot-spot temperature and aging factor of oil-immersed current transformers,” in 2008 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008, pp. 1–5.
[11] S. Taheri, S. Shahabi, and A. Gholami, “Transformer hot spot temperature assessment terminated at transmission line through a cable under lightning impulses,” in IEEE EUROCON 2009, 2009, pp. 540–544.
[12] F. Josue, I. Arifianto, R. Saers, J. Rosenlind, and P. Hilber, “Transformer hot-spot temperature estimation for short-time dynamic loading,” in 2012 IEEE International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis, 2012, pp. 217–220.
[13] Qian Xiangzhong, Mu Shuai, and Yu Deming, “Design of the power transformer winding hot spot temperature on-line detecting system,” in 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference, 2011, vol. 2, pp. 124–127.
[14] International Standard IEC 60076-7; "Power Transformers-Part 7: Loading guide for oil immersed power transformers";2005
[15] International Standard IEC 60076-2; "Power Transformers-Part 2: Temperature rise for liquid-immersed power transformers";2011
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