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Analytical Study on Threats to Wetland Ecosystems and their Solutions in the Framework of the Ramsar Convention
Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, various challenges threaten these ecosystems and disrupt their ecological character. Among these, the effects of human-based threats are more devastating. Following mass degradation of wetlands during 1970s, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) was concluded to conserve wetlands of international importance and prevent destruction and degradation of such ecosystems through wise use of wetlands as a mean to achieve sustainable development in all over the world. Therefore, in this paper, efforts have been made to analyze threats to wetlands and then investigate solutions in the framework of the Ramsar Convention. Finally, in order to operate these mechanisms, this study concludes that all states should in turn make their best effort to improve and restore global wetlands through preservation of environmental standards and close contribution and also through taking joint measures with other states effectively.
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[2] W. J. Mitsch & J. G. Gosselink, "Wetlands”, Fourth Edition, Wiley Publications, 2007, p.4.
[3] K. Juliano & S. P. Simonovic, "The Impact of Wetlands on Flood Control in the Red River Valley of Manitoba”, Final Report to International Joint Commission, Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 1999, p.8.
[4] United Nations Environmental Programs, "The Environment in the News”, Wednesday, 17 October 2012, p.2.
[5] G. V. T. Mathews, "The Ramsar Convention0020on Wetlands: Its History and Development” Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland, 2013, p.8.
[6] Supra Note 2.
[7] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, "Ecosystems and Human Well- Being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis." World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 2005, p.2.
[8] Ramsar Convention Secretariat, "the Ramsar Convention Manual: a Guide to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)”, 6th Ed, Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland, 2013, p.21.
[9] Supra notes 2 & 5, p.17.
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[11] ], J. Kusher, "Wetlands and Natural Hazards”, Association of State Wetlands Managers, Inc, Helderberg Trail, Berne, 2009, pp. 3-5.
[12] Ramsar Convention Secretariat, "Flood Control”, Fact Sheet 1 of a 10 series, Gland, Switzerland, 2013, pp.1 & 2.
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[14] Supra Note 11, p.10.
[15] Prince Edward Island, "Wetlands and Soil Erosion” Fact Sheet 7, Easter Habitat Joint Venture, PEI Wetland Notes 8198, Refer
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[17] B. Zhou, et al., "The Evaluation of the Value of Soil Erosion on Wetlands in Beijing, Photonics and Imaging for Agricultural Engineering, SPIE, Volume 7752, 2011,p.1.
[18] Supra note 15.
[19] S. Gilbert et al, "The Impact of Drought on Coastal Wetlands in the Carolinas”, State of Knowledge Report, January 2012, p.5.
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[24] A. L. Wright, "Environmental Consequences of Water Withdrawals and Drainage of Wetlands”, Soil and Water Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, SL 302, 2009, p.2.
[25] S. Hamilton, "Agricultural Pesticide Impacts on Prairie Wetlands”, Iowa State University, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. March 1993, pp.3- 6.
[26] ], A. Shakeri & F. Moore, "The Impact of an Industrial Complex on Freshly Deposited Sediments, Chener, Rahdar River Case Study, Shiraz, Iran, Springer Science, Business Media B.V. Vol. 169, No.321, 2010, pp.321 & 322.
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[32] Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, "Invasive Alien Species” Living in Harmony with Nature, United Nations Decade on Biodiversity 2010-2020, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2009, p.1.
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[35] Supra note 33, p.2.
[36] R. J. Nicholls, "Coastal Flooding and Wetland Loss in the 21st Century: Changes under the SRES Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios”, Global Environmental Change, Elsevier, Vol.14, 2004, p.70.
[37] B. Blankespoor, et al, "Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Wetlands: Impacts and Costs”, The World Bank, Development Research Group, Research Support Team, November 2012, p.3.
[38] Article 2 (1) of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971.
[39] Article 3 (2) of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971
[40] Ramsar Convention Secretariat, "the Monteux Record and the Ramsar Advisory Missions”, Ramsar Information Paper, No.6, Refer .
[42] Article 2 (3) of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971.
[43] A. S. Timoshenko, "Protection of Wetlands by International Law” Pace Environmental Law Review, Volume 5, Volume 5 Issue 2, Spring 1988, p.466.
[44] Supra note 40.
[45] Art(s) 2 (5) & 4 (1), (2) of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971.
[46] Recommendation 4.4,”Establishment of Natural Reserves”, 4th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties Monteux, Switzerland 27 June-4 July 1990.
[47] Recommendation 5.3,” The Essential Character of Wetlands and the Need for Zonation Related to Wetland Reserves”, 5th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties Kushiro, Japan9-16 June 1993.
[48] Article 4 (3) of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971
[49] Recommendation 1.2, "Developing Countries in the Convention”, the 1st Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties Cagliari, Italy 24-29 November 1980.
[50] Article 3 (1) of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971.
[51] Recommendation 1.5,”National Wetland Inventories”, the 1st Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties Cagliari, Italy 24-29 November 1980.
[52] Recommendation 3.3,”Wise Use of Wetlands”, the 3rd Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties Regina, Canada 27 May - 5 June 1987.
[53] Resolution VIII.25,”The Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008”, 8th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) Valencia, Spain, 18-26 November 2002.
[54] Supra note 53, p.
[55] Resolution VI.19,”Education and Public Awareness”, 6th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties Brisbane, Australia 19-27 March 1
[56] Ibid.
[57] 39_4000_0__.
[58] Resolution X.1,”The Ramsar Strategic Plan 2099-2015”, 10th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, Changwon, Republic of Korea, 28 October-4 November 2008.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, "Ecosystems and Well-being”, Synthesis, World Resources Institute, Island Press, Washington, DC. 2005, p.50.
[61] Resolution XI.13, "An Integrated Framework for Linking Wetland Conservation and Wise Use with Poverty Eradication”, 11th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, Bucharest, Romania, 6-13 July 2012.
[62] Resolution X.28,”Wetlands and Poverty Eradication”, 10th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, Changwon, Republic of Korea, 28 October-4 November 2008.
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