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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29636

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Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads
Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 
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[1] Tandel Y. K., Solanki C. H. and Desai A. K, “Reinforced stone column: Remedial of ordinary stone column”, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 2012, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 340-348.
[2] Namir K. S. Al-Saoudi, Mohammad M. M. Al-Kaissi, Sarah E. K. Al-Baiaty, “Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns at Two Different Relative Densities, Engineering and Technology journal”, 2013, Vol. 31, Issue 13, p: 2415-2432.
[3] Martin Gäb, Helmut F. Schweiger, Daniela Kamrat-Pietraszewska and Minna Karstunen, “Numerical analysis of a floating stone column foundation using different constitutive models”, 2009, Proceedings of the second international journal on geotechnics of soft soils, Glasgow, Scotland.
[4] Ambily A.P., Gandhi S.R. “Behavior of stone columns based on experimental and FEM analysis”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2007, ASCE 133 (4), 405-415.
[5] F. Kirsch, “Evaluation of ground improvement by groups of vibro stone columns using field measurements and numerical analysis”, 2009 Geotechnics of Soft Soils – Focus on Ground Improvement, Taylor & Francis Group, London.
[6] Gniel J. and Bouazza A., “Numerical modelling of small-scale geogrid encased sand column tests, Geotechnics of Soft Soils – Focus on Ground Improvement”, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009 London.
[7] Ghazavi and Nazari afshar, “Bearing capacity of geosynthetic encased stone columns”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 2013, 38: 26-36.
[8] Malarvizhi SN, Ilamparuthi K. “Load versus settlement of clay bed stabilized with stone and reinforced stone columns. In: Proceedings of GeoAsia, Seoul, Korea, 2004, pp 322–329.
[9] McKelvey, D., “The performance of vibro stone column reinforced foundations in deep soft ground”, 2004, PhD Dissertation, Queen’s University, Belfast.
[10] Sivakumar, V. Glynn, D. Black, J. and McNeill, J. “A laboratory model study of the performance of vibrated stone columns in soft clay”. In: Proceedings of the 14th European conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, Madrid, 2007, Spain, pp 24–27.
[11] Ziaie M., .R and Mohammadi H., B. 2016. “Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads”, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:10, No:9.
[12] Mitchel J. K., Huber, “Performance of a stone column foundation, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering”, 1985, ASCE 111(2), 205-223.
[13] Elshazly H., Hafez D. Mosaad M., “Back calculating vibro-installation stresses in stone columns reinforced grounds”, Journal of Ground Improvement, 2006, 10 (2), 47-53.
[14] Clough, R. W., Penzien, J., 1993. Dynamics of Structures. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[15] Komak Panah, A. and Majidian S., “Nonlinear 2DOF system for efficient seismic analysis of vertical soil-nailed walls”, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 2016, pp 1-25.
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