Collaborative E-Learning with Multiple Imaginary Co-Learner: Design, Issues and Implementation
Collaborative problem solving in e-learning can take
in the form of discussion among learner, creating a highly social
learning environment and characterized by participation and
interactivity. This paper, designed a collaborative learning
environment where agent act as co-learner, can play different roles
during interaction. Since different roles have been assigned to the
agent, learner will assume that multiple co-learner exists to help and
guide him all throughout the collaborative problem solving process,
but in fact, alone during the learning process. Specifically, it answers
the questions what roles of the agent should be incorporated to
contribute better learning outcomes, how agent will facilitate the
communication process to provide social learning and interactivity
and what are the specific instructional strategies that facilitate learner
participation, increased skill acquisition and develop critical thinking.
 Allen, J. & Blaylock, N. & Ferguson G. (2002). A Problem Solving
Model for Collaborative Agents. 2002.
 Ballera, M. & Omar, A. Exploring Social Networking Technology and
Multiple Pedagogical Agents: How and When and to What Extent they
Facilitate Learning in E- Learning Systems. International Conference in
Information Communication Technology in Education. pp 374-383. July
 Ballera, M. & Elssaedi, M. M, (2012). Incorporating Social Oriented
Agent and Interactive Simulation in E-learning: Impact on Learning,
Perceptions, Experiences to Non-Native English Students. To be
appeared on World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate,
Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education. Montreal Canada.
October 9-12, 2012.
 Baylor, A. L., & Kim, Y. Pedagogical Agents aslearning companions:
The role of agent competency and type of interaction. Association of
Educational Communications and technology. 2006. Vol. 54 No. 3. pp.
 Botsios, S., Mitropoulou, V., Gergiou, D., & Panapakidis, I. Design of
Virtual co-Learner for asynchronous Collaborative e-learning. Paper
presented at 6th International Conference on Advance Learning
Technologies. Netherland. July 5-7, 2009.
 Chen, P., Gonyea, R., & Kuh, G. Learning at a distance: Engaged or
 Chou, C. Y., Chan, T. W., & Lin, C. J. Redefining the learning
companion: The past, present, and future of educational agents.
Computers & Education, 40, 255-269. 2003.
 Fan, Sandra. Roles in Online Collaborative Problem Solving. IEEE
Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, 2010.
 Gulz, A., Haake, M., Silvervarg, A., Sjoden. B., & Veletsianos, G.,
Building Conversational Pedagogical Agent: Design Challenges and
Methodological approaches. In Perez-Martin, D., & Pascual-Nieto
(Eds.), Converstaional Agents and Natural Language Interaction:
Techniques and Effective Practice, 2011. pp. 128-155.
 Hennessy, S., & Murphy, P. The potential forcollaborative problem
solving in design and technology. International Journal of Technology
and Design Education, 9(1), pp. 1-36. 1999.
 Siemens, G. Connectivism: Learning theory for the digital age.
International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance
Learning, 2(1), January 2005.
 Takaoka, R., Okamoto, T. A Design of Interaction Model among
Pedagogical Agents in Collaborative Teaching Process. Computer
Science and Information Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 23-35. 2005.
 Uresti, R. J., & Boulay, B. D. Expertise, motivation and teaching in
learning companion systems. International Journal of Artificial
Intelligence in Education, 14, 193-231. 2004.
 Veletsianos, G. How do learners respond to pedagogical agents that
deliver social-oriented non-task messages? Impact on student learning,
perceptions, and experiences. Computers in Human Behavior 28, 275-