Effects of Sole and Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Leaf Nutrient Composition and Performance of White Yam
Field experiments were conducted during 2013, 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of yam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 20 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control). The five treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The test soil was slightly acidic, low in organic carbon (OC), N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) tuber weights and growth of yam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and OC concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased tuber weights of yam by 36%, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 19%, compared with PM alone. Sole PM increased tuber weight of yam by 15%, compared with NPK. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties, nutrient availability, compared with NPK and the NSF (control). Integrated application of CPA at 10 t ha-1 + PM at 10 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving soil physical properties, increasing nutrient availability and yam performance than sole application of any of the fertilizer materials.
 S.K. Hahn, D.S.O. Osiru, M.O. Akoroda and J.A. Otoo, “Yam production and its future prospects”. Outlook Agriculture, 16(3):105-110, 1987.
 C.A. Okoh, “The effect of mulching on soil physico-chemical properties and the yield of white yam”, Tropical Journal of Root Tuber Crops, 4(2):24-31, 2004.
 T.M. Agbede, “Effect of tillage on soil properties and yam yield on an Alfisol of southwestern Nigeria”, Soil Tillage Research, 86(1):1-8, 2006.
 G.C. Orkwor, R. Asiedu and I.J. Ekanayake, “Food Yams: Advances in Research. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria, 249 p, 1998.
 G.O. Obigbesan, A. A. Agboola and A.A.A. Fayemi, “Effect of potassium on tuber yield and nutrient uptake of yam”, In: J. Cock, R. MacIntyre and M. Graham (Eds.). Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 1-7 August 1976, pp. 104-107, 1976.
 G.O. Obigbesan, “In: Potassium Workshop”, Oct. 1980, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1980.
 S.O. Ojeniyi, “Effect of goat manure on soil nutrient and okra yield in a rainforest area of Nigeria”, Applied Tropical Agriculture, 5:20-23, 2000.
 T.M. Agbede, A.O. Adekiya and J.S. Ogeh, “Effects of organic fertilizers on yam productivity and some soil properties of a nutrient-depleted tropical Alfisol”, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 59(4-6):803-822, 2013.
 O.A. Egunjobi, “On the possible utilization of discarded cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pod husks as fertilizer and nematicides”, Proceedings of the 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, CRIN, Ibadan, Sept. 1-9, 1975, pp. 541-547, 1976.
 H.K. Adu-Daapah, J. Cobbinah and E.O. Asare, “Effect of cocoa pod ash on the growth of maize”, Journal of Agricultural Science, 122:31-33, 1994.
 D.I. Akanni and S.O. Ojeniyi, “Effect of different levels of poultry manure on soil physical properties, nutrient status, growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)”, Research Journal of Agronomy, 1:1-4, 2007.
 L.S. Ayeni and M.T. Adetunji, “Integrated application of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, yield and growth components of maize”, Nature and Science, 8(1):60-67, 2010.
 L. Degras, “The yam: a tropical root crop. London: Macmillan/ The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, 1993.
 G.O. Obigbesan and A.A Agboola, “Uptake and distribution of nutrients by yams (Dioscorea spp) in western Nigeria”, Experimental Agriculture, 14:349-355, 1978.
 Soil Survey Staff, “Keys to soil taxonomy”, 11th Edition. Agriculture Handbook, No. 436. United States Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington DC, 2010.
 FAO, “World reference base of soil resources”, World Soil Resources Report 84. Foods and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 1998.
 T.M. Agbede and A.O. Adekiya, “Effects of poultry manure on soil fertility, growth and yield of white yam and yellow yam”. University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(3):286-303, 2012.
 E.U, Onweremadu, I.I Ibeawuchi and C.I. Duruigbo, “Land evaluation and productivity of organically-fertilized crop mixtures in a degraded soil”, Nature and Science, 6(1):34-42, 2008.
 M. Pansu and J. Gautheyrou, “Handbook of Soil Analysis”. Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 995pp, 2006.
 W. Horwitz, Editor, “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International”. 16th Edition. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD; 1298pp, 1997.
 H. Shiwachi, C.C. Okonkwo and R. Asiedu, “Nutrient deficiency symptoms in yams (Dioscorea spp)”, Tropical Science, 44:155-162, 2004.
 E.A. Akinrinde and G.O. Obigbesan, “Evaluation of the fertility status of selected soils for crop production in five ecological zones of Nigeria”, In: O. Babalola (Ed.). Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria; 2000 Oct 30 – Nov 3; Ibadan, pp. 279-288, 2000.
 M.I. Onwuka, V.E. Osedeke, and N.A. Okolo, “Amelioration of soil acidity using cocoa husk ash for maize production in Umudike area of southeast Nigeria”, Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 7:41-45, 2007.
 J.S.C. Mbagwu and A. Piccolo, “Changes in soil aggregate stability induced by amendment with humic substances”, African Journal of Biotechnology, 5:1058-1061, 1989.
 E.I. Moyin-Jesu, “Evaluation of different organic fertilizers on the soil, leaf chemical composition and growth performances of coffee seedlings (Coffee arabica L.)”, African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST)), Science and Engineering Series, 9(2):105-112, 2008.
 L.S. Ayeni, M.T. Adetunji, S.O. Ojeniyi, B.S. Ewulo and A.J. Adeyemo, “Comparative and cumulative effect of cocoa pod husk ash and poultry manure on soil and nutrient contents and maize yield”, American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2(1):92-97, 2008.
 K. Agyarko and E.K. Asiedu, “Cocoa pod husk and poultry manure on soil nutrients and cucumber growth”, Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(11):2870-2874, 2012.
 E.O. Adeleye and L.S. Ayeni, “Effect of cocoa pod ash and poultry manure combinations on soil and plant nutrient contents and performance of maize – Screenhouse Experiment”, Researcher, 2(12):51-56, 2010.
 S.O. Ojeniyi, M.A. Awodun and S.A. Odedina, “Effect of animal manure amended spent grain and cocoa husk on nutrient status, growth and yield of tomato”, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 2(1):33-36, 2007.
 J.N. O’Sullivan, “Yam nutrition: Nutrient disorders and soil fertility management”, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) Monograph No. 144, Canberra, 112 pp, 2010.