Cryosorption pumps are considered safe, quiet, and
ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application
from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases
over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic
temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the
pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon, and
Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of
development of Cryosorption pump and characterization of different
activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the
pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine
the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with
commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel,
bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with
granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that
cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds
than large sized pellets.
 An Introduction to Cryogenics by Ph. Lebrun, President, Commission
A1 “Cryophysics and Cryoengineering” of the IIRAccelerator
Technology Department, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
 Cold, cold world -Robert Arnouiternewsline 29 Jan, 2010 - #116.
 Basics and applications of cryopumps-C.DayForschungszentrum
Karlsruhe, Institute of Technical Physics, 76344 Eggenstein-
Leopoldshafen, Germany ,pp.241-270.
 Cryopumps for research and industry by Werner G Baechler, Leybold-
Heraeus, Cologne, FRG/Vacuum/volume 37/numbers 1/2/pages 21 to
 Pumping speed of cryosorption pumps in the pressure range 10-6 to 10-
3torr by R Dobrozemsky and G Moraw, Physics-Institute, Reactor
Centre Seibersdorf, Austria.
 Design and performance characteristics of refrigerator-cooled
cryopumps for the RIKEN ring cyclotron by K Ikegami, S Nakajima and
S H Be, RIKEN, Japan Vacuum/volume 3Wnumber 2/pages 99 to
 The crossover of refrigerator cooled cryopumps by C.Juhnke, H H Klein
et.al k Frankfurt, FRG Vacuum/volume 44/numbers 5-7/pages 717 to
 New methods and investigations for regenerating refrigerator cryopumps
by H U Haifner et.al Leybold AG, Cologne, FRG/ Vacuum/volume
41/numbers 7-9/pages 1840 to 1842/1990.
 Elsevier / Fusion Engineering and Development 31/ 1996(81-97)/
Development of cryosorption pump for neutral beam injector by Y. Oka,
T. Takanashi et.al National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01,
 Elsevier / Cryogenics 43 / 2003/ Experimental study on natural
circulation precooling of cryogenic pump system with gas phase inlet
reflux configuration by G.B. Chen, Y.K. Zhong, et.al Cryogenics
Laboratory, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China.