Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Generation of Electro-Encephalography Readiness Potentials by Intention
The readiness potential in brain waves is a brain activity related with an intention whose potential arises even before its conscious intention. This study was carried out in order to understand the generation and mechanism of the readiness potential more. The experiment with two subjects was conducted in two ways following the Oddball task protocol. Firstly, auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the subjects. The subject was allowed to press the keyboard with the right index finger only when the subject heard the target stimulus but not the standard stimulus. Secondly, unlike the first one, the auditory stimuli were randomly presented, and the subjects pressed the keyboard in the same manner, but at the same time with grasping action of the left hand. The readiness potential showed up for both of these experiments. In the first Oddball experiment, the readiness potential was detected only when the target stimulus was presented. However, in the second Oddball experiment with the left hand action of grasping something, the readiness potential was detected at the presentation of for both standard and target stimuli. However, detected readiness potentials with the target stimuli were larger than those of the standard stimuli. We found an interesting phenomenon that the readiness potential was able to be detected even the standard stimulus. This indicates that motor-related readiness potentials can be generated only by the intention to move. These results present a new perspective in psychology and brain engineering since subconscious brain action may be prior to conscious recognition of the intention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):


[1] Lee KH, “An alternative interpretation of Libet’s experiment – Recent Neuro-scientific findings and Free Will”, Journal of the daedong philosophical association, Vol. 49, pp. 347-374, 2009.
[2] Libet B, Gleason CA, Wright EW, Pearl DK, “Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (Readiness-Potential): the unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act”, Brain, Vol. 106, pp. 623-642, 1983.
[3] Libet B, “Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action”, The behavioral and brain sciences, Vol. 8, pp. 529-566, 1985.
[4] Haggard P, Libet B, “Conscious intention and brain activity”, Journal of consciousness studies, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 47-63, 2001.
[5] Haggard P, “Conscious intention and motor cognition”, TRENDS in cognitive sciences, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 290-295, 2005.
[6] Haggard P, Eimer M, “On the relation between brain potentials and the awareness of voluntary movements”, Experimental brain research, Vol. 126, pp. 128-133, 1999.
[7] Keller I, Heckhausen H, “Readiness Potentials preceding spontaneous motor acts: voluntary vs. involuntary control”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 76, pp. 351-361, 1990.
[8] Alexander P, Schlegel A, Sinnott-Armstrong W, Roskies AL, Wheatley T, Tse PU, “Readiness potentials driven by non-motoric processes”, Consciousness and cognition, Vol. 39, pp. 38-47, 2016.
[9] Jo HG, Wittmann M, Hinterberger T, Schmidt S, “The readiness potential reflects intentional binding”, Frontiers in human neuroscience, Vol. 8, No. 421, pp. 1-9, 2014.
[10] Trevena JA, Miller J, “Cortical movement preparation before and after a conscious decision to move”, Consciousness and cognition, Vol. 11, pp. 162-190, 2002.
[11] Masaki H, Wild-Wall N, Sangals J, Sommer W, “The functional locus of the lateralized readiness potential”, Psychophysiology, Vol. 41, pp. 220-230, 2004.
[12] Kilner JM, Vargas C, Duval S, Blakemore SJ, Sirigu A, “Motor activation prior to observation of a predicted movement”, Nature neuroscience, Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 1299-1301, 2004.
[13] Banks WP, Pockett S, “Benjamin Libet’s work on the neuroscience of Free Will”, in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness, 1st ed. Velmans M, Schneider S, Ed. Malden: Blackwell, 2007, pp. 657-670.
[14] Herrmann CS, Pauen M, Min BK, Busch NA, Rieger JW, “Analysis of a choice-reaction task yields a new interpretation of Libet’s experiments”, International journal of psychophysiology, Vol. 67, pp. 151-157, 2008.
[15] Trevena J, Miller J, “Brain preparation before a voluntary action: Evidence against unconscious movement initiation”, Consciousness and cognition, Vol. 19, pp. 447-456, 2010.
[16] Lee KH, “Libertarianism of J. Habermas”, Journal of the daedong philosophical association, Vol. 39, pp. 103-125, 2007.
[17] Jeong JW, “Kantian answer to Libet experiment – Human owning personality”, Journal of the daedong philosophical association, Vol. 44, pp. 267-286, 2008.
[18] Park JY, Ko MJ, “A critical review on Libet’s work and follow-up studies on Free Will – Implication of Neuroscientific research on criminal law”, Journal of law, The Law Research institute, Seoul national university, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 477-510, 2011.
[19] Soon CS, Brass M, Heinze HJ, Haynes JD, “Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain”, Nature neuroscience, Vol. 11, pp. 543-545, 2008.
[20] Bates JAV, “Electrical activity of the cortex accompanying movement”, Journal of physiology, Vol. 113, pp. 240-257, 1951.
[21] Shibasaki H, Hallett M, “What is the Bereitschaftspotential?”, Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 117, pp. 2341-2356, 2006.
[22] Kornhuber HH, Deecke L, “Changes in brain potential in humans before and after voluntary movements studied by recording on magnetic tape and reverse analysis”. Pflugers Arch: European Journal of Physiology, Vol. 281, pp. 52, 1964.
[23] Jahanshahi M, Hallett M, “The BereitschaftsPotential: What does it measure and Where does it come from?”, in The Bereitschaftspotential: Movement-Related Cortical Potential, 1st ed. Jahanshahi M, Hallett M, Ed. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2003, pp. 1-17.
[24] Shibasaki H, Barrett G, Halliday E, Halliday AM, “Components of the Movement-related Cortical Potential and their scalp topography”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 49, pp. 213-226, 1980.
[25] Kornhuber HH, Deecke L, “Changes in brain potentials during voluntary movements and passive movements of the human being: Bereitschaftspotential and Reafferente Potentials”, Pflugers Arch: European Journal of Physiology, Vol. 284, pp. 1-17, 1965.
[26] Vaughan HG, Costa LD, Ritter W, “Topography of the human motor potential”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1968.
[27] Dick JPR, Rothwell JC, Day BL, Cantello R, Buruma O, Gioux M, et al, “The Bereitschaftspotential is abnormal in Parkinson’s disease”, Brain, Vol. 113, pp. 233-244, 1989.
[28] Lang W, Cheyne D, Kristeva R, Beisteiner R, Lindinger G, Deecke L, “Three-dimensional localization of SMA activity preceding voluntary movement: A study of electric and magnetic fields in a patient with infarction of the right supplementary motor area”, Experimental brain research, Vol. 87, pp. 688-695, 1991.
[29] Tarkka M, Hallet M, “Topography of scalp-recorded motor potentials in human finger movements”, Journal of clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 8, pp. 331-341, 1991.
[30] Kristeva R, Cheyne D, Deecke C, Deecke L, “Neuromagnetic fields accompanying unilateral and bilateral voluntary movements: Topography and analysis of cortical sources”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 81, pp. 284-298, 1991.
[31] Cui RQ, Deecke L, “High resolution DC-EEG analysis of the Bereitschaftspotential and post movement onset potentials accompanying uni- or bilateral voluntary finger movements”, Brain topography, Vol. 11, pp. 233-249, 1999.
[32] Libet B, Wright WE, Gleason CA, “Readiness-Potentials preceding unrestricted ‘spontaneous’ vs. pre-planned voluntary acts”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 54, pp. 322-335, 1982.
[33] Yoon JS, Kang JH, et al, New clinical physiology-Neuro function test study, Seoul: Korea Medical Book Publishing Company, 2014, pp. 238-239.
[34] Lim S, Sim KS, Shin DK, Yoon G, “Event related potentials in terms of visual and auditory stimuli”, WASET International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, Vol. 10, No. 12, pp. 807-812, 2016.
[35] Arnaud Delorme, Scott Makeig, “EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis”, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Vol. 134, pp.9-21, 2004.
[36] Lim S, Yeo M, Yoon G, “Comparison between Concentration and Immersion Based on EEG Analysis”, Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, submitted for publication.
[37] Caspers H, Speckmann EJ, Lehmenkuhler A, “Electrogenesis of Cortical DC Potentials”, Progress in brain research, Vol. 43, pp. 3-15, 1980.
[38] Skinner JE, Yingling CD, “Regulation of slow potential shifts in nucleus reticularis thalami by the mesencephalic reticular formation and the frontal granular cortex”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 40, pp. 288-296, 1976.
[39] Caspers H, Speckmann EJ, “Cortical DC shifts associated with changes of gas tension in blood and tissue”, Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 10, No. A, pp. 41-65, 1974.
[40] Garrett B, Brain & Behavior – An introduction to biological psychology, Hakjisa, Seoul: Hakjisa, 2013, pp. 431-438.
[41] MacKinnon CD, “Recordings of movement-related potentials combined with PET, fMRI or MEG”, in The Bereitschaftspotential: Movement-Related Cortical Potentials, 1st ed. Jahanshahi M, Hallett M, Ed. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2003, pp. 95-112.
[42] Orgogozo JM, Larsen B, “Activation of the supplementary motor area during voluntary movement in man suggests it works as a supramotor area”, Science, Vol. 206, No. 4420, pp. 847-850, 1979.
[43] Ronald PE, Larsen B, Lassen NA, Skinhøj E, “Supplementary motor area and other cortical areas in organization of voluntary movements in man”, Journal of neurophysiology, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 118-136, 1980.
[44] Picard N, Strick PL, “Motor area of the medial wall: A review of their location and functional activation”, Cerebral cortex, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 342-353, 1996.
[45] Neshige R, Luders H, Shibasaki H, “Recording of movement-related potentials from scalp and cortex in man”, Brain, Vol. 111, pp. 719-736, 1988.
[46] Botzel K, Plendl H, Paulus W, Scherg M, “Bereitschaftspotential: is there contribution of the supplementary motor area?”, Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology, Vol. 89, pp. 187-196, 1993.
Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007