Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29381


Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
9997125
Highlighting of the Factors and Policies Affecting CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector
Abstract:
Global CO2 emission and increasing fuel consumption to meet energy demand has become a threat in recent decades. Effort to reduce the CO2 emission is now a matter of priority in most countries of the world including Malaysia. Transportation has been identified as the most intensive sector of carbon-based fuels and achievement of the voluntary target to meet 40% carbon intensity reduction set at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) means that the emission from the transport sector must be reduced accordingly. This posed a great challenge to Malaysia and effort has to be made to embrace suitable and appropriate energy policy for sustainable energy and emission reduction of this sector. The focus of this paper is to analyze the trends of Malaysia’s energy consumption and emission of four different transport sub-sectors (road, rail, aviation and maritime). Underlying factors influencing the growth of energy consumption and emission trends are discussed. Besides, technology status towards energy efficiency in transportation sub-sectors is presented. By reviewing the existing policies and trends of energy used, the paper highlights prospective policy options towards achieving emission reduction in the transportation sector.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

References:

[1] A. Mofleh, S.Taib and W.A. Salah, "Malaysia energy demand and emissions from the transportation sector”, Transport, vol 25(4), pp. 448–453, 2010.
[2] A. Nurdden, R.A.O.K. Rahmat and A. Ismail "Reasons why buses and trains are not being more extensively as travel mode in Malaysia”,Asian Journal Science, vol1, pp. 65-71, 2008.
[3] A.A. Azlina and N.N.H. Mustapha, "Energy, Economic Growth and Pollutant Emissions Nexus: The case of Malaysia. Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol65, pp. 1-7, 2012.
[4] A.B. Aizura, T.M.I. Mahlia and H.H. Masjuki, "Potential fuel savings and emission reduction from fuel economy standards implementation for motor vehicle”, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol 12(3), pp. 255-263,2010.
[5] A.H. Jafar, A.Q. Al-Amin and C. Siwar C, "Environmental impact of alternative fuel mix in electricity generation in Malaysia”. Renewable Energy, vol 33(10), pp. 2229– 35, 2008.
[6] A.M. Zanni and A.L. Bristow, "Emissions of CO2 from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions”, Energy Policy, vol 38, pp. 1774-1786, 2010.
[7] A.R. Mohamed and K.T. Lee, "Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: energy policy and alternative energy”, Energy Policy, vol 34(15), pp. 2388–97, 2006.
[8] A.S. Almselati, R.A. Rahmat and O. Jaafar, "An overview of urban transport in Malaysia”, The Social Sciences, vol 6(1), pp. 24-33, 2011.
[9] A.Z. Abdullah, B.Salamatinia, H. Mootabadi and S. Bhatia, "Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world’s leading producer of palm oil”, Energy Policy, vol37, pp. 5440–5448, 2009.
[10] Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), "Peer Review on Energy efficiency in Malaysia”, 2011, Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved from: http://www.ewg.apec.org (accessed on November 2013).
[11] Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC), "APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook (5th Edition)”, 2013, Tokyo, Japan.
[12] B. Johansson, "Will restrictions on CO2 emissions require reductions in transport demand?”,Energy Policy, vol37(8), pp. 3212–3220, 2009.
[13] D.A. Hensher, "Climate change, enhanced greenhouse gas emissions andPassenger transport – What can we do to make a difference?", Transportation Research Part D, vol13, pp. 95–111, 2008.
[14] G. Bueno, "Analysis of scenarios for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions in transport in the Basque Country”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 16, pp. 1988–1998, 2012.
[15] G.R. Timilsina and A. Shrestha, "Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options”,Energy Policy, vol37(11), pp. 4523–4539, 2009.
[16] H.C. Ong, T.M.I. Mahliaand H.H. Masjuki, "A review on energy pattern and policy for transportation sector in Malaysia”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol16(1), pp. 532–542, 2012.
[17] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change (2007). Synthesis Report”, 2007.
[18] International Energy Agency (IEA), "CO2 Emission from Fuel Combustion”, 2012.
[19] International Energy Agency (IEA), "Key World Energy Statistics”, 2012.
[20] J. Dargay, D. Gately and M. Sommer, "Vehicle ownership and income growth, Worldwide: 1960-2030”, Energy Journal, vol28 (4), pp. 143–70, 2007.
[21] J. Ellis, "The Effects of Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Reform: A Review of Modelling and Empirical Studies”, Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2139/ssrn.1572397 (accessed on February, 21, 2013).
[22] J. Kasipillai and P. Chan, "Travel demand management: Lessons for Malaysia, Journal of Public Transportation,,vol11 (3), pp. 41-56, 2008.
[23] L. Chapman, "Transport and climate change: a review", Journal of Transport Geography, vol15, pp. 354–367, 2007.
[24] M. Borjesson and E.O. Ahlgren, "Assessment of transport fuel taxation strategies through integration of road transport in an energy system model – the case of Sweden”, International Journal of Energy Research, vol 36, pp. 648-669, 2011.
[25] M.N. Safaai, Z.Z. Noor, H. Hashim, Z. Ujang and J. Talib, "Projection of CO2 Emissions in Malaysia”, Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, vol 30(4), pp. 658-665, 2010.
[26] M. S. Indati, A. T. Ghate and Y.P. Leong,” Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia”, Earth and Environmental Science, vol16, 012122,doi:10.1088/1755-1315/16/1/012122, 2013.
[27] Malaysia Airline System Berhad (MAS), "Malaysia Airlines Environmental Report 2012”, Retrieved from: http://www.malaysiaairlines.com (accessed on November 2013).
[28] Maritime Institute of Malaysia (MIMA), "Greening the Malaysian maritime sector: Issues, challenges and opportunities”,Retrieved from: http://www.mima.gov.my (accessed on December 2013).
[29] National Energy Balance 2012.Malaysia: Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (MEWC); 2013.
[30] National Energy Balance 2009.Malaysia: Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (MEWC); 2010.
[31] National Green Technology Policy. Malaysia:Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (MEWC), 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.kettha.org.my(accessed on September 2013).
[32] Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities, "Formation of the biodiesel to spearhead the implementation of the B10 programme”, Retrieved from: http://www.kppk.gov.my (accessed on November 2013).
[33] National Biofuel Policy. Malaysia: Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.mpoc.org.my(accessed on November 2013).
[34] Transport Statistics 2012. Malaysia:Ministry of Transport (MoT), 2013.
[35] Ministry of Transport (MoT), Malaysia. Retrieved from http://www.mot.gov.my (accessed on November 2013).
[36] M. N. David and C.Brian, "Measuring the potential implications of introducing a cap and share scheme in Ireland to reduce greenhouse gas emissions”, Transport Policy, vol 18, pp. 579–586, 2011.
[37] N.V.S.N.M. Konda, N. Shah N. and N.P. Brandon, "Optimal transition towards a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure for the transport sector: The case for the Netherlands”, International Journal of hydrogen Energy, vol 36, pp. 4619-4635, 2011.
[38] P.Y. Gan and Z.D. Li, "An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia”,Energy Policy, vol 36, pp. 890–899, 2008.
[39] R. Hickman and D. Banister, "Looking over the horizon: Transport and reduced CO2 emissions in the UK by 2030”, Transport Policy, vol14(5), pp. 377–387, 2007.
[40] R. Kannan and N. Strachan, "Modelling the UK residential energy sector under long-term decarbonisation scenarios: Comparison between energy systems and sectoral modeling approaches”, Applied Energy, vol86, pp. 416-428, 2009.
[41] S. Ahmad, Z.A.Kadir and S. Shafie, "Current perspective of the renewable energy development in Malaysia”,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol15(2), pp. 897-904, 2011.
[42] S. Lim and K.T. Lee, "Implementation of biofuels in Malaysian transportation sector towards sustainable development: A case study of international cooperation between Malaysia and Japan”,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol16(4), pp. 1790–1800, 2012.
[43] S. Proost and K.V. Dender, "Energy and environment challenges in the transport sector, Economics of Transportation, vol 1, pp. 77–87, 2013.
[44] S.K. Kamarudin,W.R.W. Daud, Z. Yaakub, Z. Misron, W. Anuar and N.N. Yusuf, "Synthesis and optimization of future hydrogen energy infrastructure planning in Peninsular Malaysia”,International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol34(5), pp. 2077–2088, 2009.
[45] T.M.I. Mahlia, S. Tohno and T. Tezuka,"History and current status of the motor vehicle energy labeling and its implementation possibilities in Malaysia”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 16, pp. 1828–1844, 2012.
[46] Tenth Malaysia Plan, 2011-2015. Putrajaya, Malaysia: The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department, 2010.
[47] The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department, "Energy use in the transportation sector in Malaysia”, 2004.
[48] The Performance Management and Delivery Unit (PEMANDU), Prime Minister Department, "GTP Delivering Outcome Booklet”, 2013, Malaysia, Retrieved from (http://www.pemandu.gov.my).
[49] W. Leighty, J.M. Ogden and C. Yang, "Modeling transitions in the California light-duty vehicles sector to achieve deep reductions in transportation greenhouse gas emissions” Energy Policy, vol44, pp. 52–67, 2012.
[50] Y.Y. Tye,K.Lee, W.N. Abdullah and C.P. Leh, "Second-generation bioethanol as a sustainable energy source in Malaysia transportation: Status, potential and future prospects”,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 15, pp. 4521-4536, 2011.
[51] NERI. Emission factors for mobile sources. Denmark: National Environmental Research Institute; 2008.
[52] GreenTechMalaysia, "Study on Grid Connected Electricity Baselines in Malaysia, 2010 & 2011”, Retrieved from: http://cdm.greentechmalaysia.my (accessed on September 2013).
Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007