The host response in peri-implant tissue may differ from that in periodontal tissue in a healthy individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from single implant with different abutment types in comparison to healthy periodontal tissue. 19 participants with healthy implants and teeth were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. PICF and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected using sterile paper points. The expression level of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Paired t test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines around natural teeth and peri-implant in PICF and GCF of the same individual. The Independent t-test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in PICF from titanium and UCLA abutment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in PICF was not statistically different from GCF among titanium and UCLA abutment group. However, the level of IL-1α in the PICF from the implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.030). In addition, the level of IL-1β in PICF from the implants with titanium abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.032). When different abutment types was compared, IL-8 expression in PICF from implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than titanium abutment (P=0.003).
 Moraschini V, Poubel LA, Ferreira VF, Barboza Edos S. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2015;44(3):377-88.
 Albrektsson T, Branemark PI, Hansson HA, Lindstrom J. Osseointegrated titanium implants. Requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man. Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica. 1981;52(2):155-70.
 Trindade R, Albrektsson T, Tengvall P, Wennerberg A. Foreign Body Reaction to Biomaterials: On Mechanisms for Buildup and Breakdown of Osseointegration. Clinical implant dentistry and related research. 2016;18(1):192-203.
 Albrektsson T, Dahlin C, Jemt T, Sennerby L, Turri A, Wennerberg A. Is marginal bone loss around oral implants the result of a provoked foreign body reaction? Clinical implant dentistry and related research. 2014;16(2):155-65.
 Zhao B, van der Mei HC, Subbiahdoss G, de Vries J, Rustema-Abbing M, Kuijer R, et al. Soft tissue integration versus early biofilm formation on different dental implant materials. Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials. 2014;30(7):716-27.
 Petkovic-Curcin A, Matic S, Vojvodic D, Stamatovic N, Todorovic T. Cytokines in pathogenesis of peri-implantitis. Vojnosanitetski pregled. 2011;68(5):435-40.
 Petkovic AB, Matic SM, Stamatovic NV, Vojvodic DV, Todorovic TM, Lazic ZR, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) and chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1alpha) as markers of peri-implant tissue condition. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2010;39(5):478-85.
 Lamster IB, Grbic JT. Diagnosis of periodontal disease based on analysis of the host response. Periodontology 2000. 1995;7:83-99.
 Kaklamanos EG, Tsalikis L. A review on peri-implant crevicular fluid assays potential in monitoring and predicting peri-implant tissue responses. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. 2002;4(2):49-59.
 Nowzari H, Botero JE, DeGiacomo M, Villacres MC, Rich SK. Microbiology and cytokine levels around healthy dental implants and teeth. Clinical implant dentistry and related research. 2008;10(3):166-73.
 Pettersson M, Kelk P, Belibasakis GN, Bylund D, Molin Thoren M, Johansson A. Titanium ions form particles that activate and execute interleukin-1beta release from lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages. Journal of periodontal research. 2017;52(1):21-32.
 Lindhe J, Meyle J, Group DoEWoP. Peri-implant diseases: Consensus Report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2008;35(8 Suppl):282-5.
 Wachi T, Shuto T, Shinohara Y, Matono Y, Makihira S. Release of titanium ions from an implant surface and their effect on cytokine production related to alveolar bone resorption. Toxicology. 2015;327:1-9.
 Recker EN, Avila-Ortiz G, Fischer CL, Pagan-Rivera K, Brogden KA, Dawson DV, et al. A cross-sectional assessment of biomarker levels around implants versus natural teeth in periodontal maintenance patients. Journal of periodontology. 2015;86(2):264-72.
 Lewis MB, Klineberg I. Prosthodontic considerations designed to optimize outcomes for single-tooth implants. A review of the literature. Aust Dent J. 2011;56(2):181-92.