Åkerlind, G. S. 2005. Variation and commonlatity in phenomenogrpahic
research methods, Higher Education Research & Development, 24(4):
 Audretsch, D. B. and R. Thurik. 2001. "Linking Entrepreneurship to
Growth", OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers,
2001/02, OECD Publishing. Available online from:
 Audretsch, D. B., Thurik, A. R., Verheul, I. and Wennekers A. R. M.
(2002). Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European-US
Comparison, Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
 Baron, R. A. 2002. OB and entrepreneurship: The reciprocal benefits of
closer conceptual links. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24
 Bergmann, H. and Sternberg, R. 2007. The Changing Face of
Entrepreneurship in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28: 205-221.
 Bernstein, R. J. 1995. Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science,
hermenutics, and praxis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvannia
 Beugelsdijk, S., and Noorderhaven, N. 2005. Personality characteristics
of self-employed: An empirical study. Small Business Economics, 24:
 Blanchflower, D. G. and Shadforth, C. 2007. Entrepreneurship in the
UK. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 3(4): 257-264.
 Bowden, J. 1995. Phenomenographic research: some methodological
issues. Nordisk Pedagogik, 3: 145-155.
 Brixy, U., Hundt, C., Sternberg, R. and Vorderw├╝lbecke, A. 2010.
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) - Laenderbericht
Deutschland, 2010. Available online from:
 Burns, J. 1994. Extending critique within phenomenography. In R.
Ballantyne and C. Bruce (Eds.), Proceedings of phenomenography:
Philosophy and practice, pp. 71-76. Brisbane, Queensland: QUT
Publications and Printing.
 Busenitz, L. W., Gomez, C. and Spencer, J. W. 2000. Country
institutional profiles: Unlocking entrepreneurial phenomena. Academy of
Management Journal, 43(5): 994-1003.
 Chinoy, E. 1955. Automobile Workers and the American Dream, Garden
City, NY: Doubleday
 Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H. and Steier, L. P. 2002. The influence of
National Culture and Family involvement on Entrepreneurial
Perceptions and Performance at the State Level. Entrepreneurship
Theory and Practice, 26(4): 113-131.
 Cope, C. 2004. Ensuring validity and reliability in phenomenographic
research using the analytical framework of a structure of awareness.
Qualitative Research Journal, 4(2): 5-18.
 Dahlgren, L. O. and Fallsberg, M. 1991. Phenomenography as a
qualitative approach in social pharmacy research. Journal of Social and
Administrative Pharmacy, 8: 150 -156.
 Davidsson, P. 1995. Culture, structure and regional levels of
entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 7: 41-
 Entwistle, N. (1997). Introduction: phenomenography in higher
education. Higher Education Research & Development, 16: 127-134.
 Evans, D. S. and Leighton, L. S. 1989. Some empirical aspects of
entrepreneurship. American Economic Review, 79: 519-535.
 Gartner, W. B. 1988. "Who is an entrepreneur?" is the wrong question.
American Journal of Small Business, 12: 11-32.
 Gartner, W. B. 1990. What Are We Talking about When We Talk about
Entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing, 5: 15-28.
 Gelderen, M. van, Jansen, P. and Jonge, S. 2003. The multiple sources of
autonomy as a startup motive. SCALES paper N200315, Available
online from: http://www.ondernemerschap.nl/pdf-ez/N200315.pdf
 Gupta, V. and Fernandez, C. 2009. Cross-Cultural Similarities and
Differences in Characteristics Attributed to Entrepreneurs - A Three-
Nation Study. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(3):
 Hamilton, R. T. 1989. Unemployment and Business Formation Rates:
Reconciling Time Series and Cross Section Evidence, Environment and
Planning, 21: 249-255.
 Hebert, R. F., and Link, A. N. 1989. In Search of the Meaning of
Entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 1: 39-49.
 Henricks, M. 2002. Not Just A Living: The Complete Guide To Creating
A Business That Gives You A Life, Perseus Book
 Hisrich, R. D., Honig-Haftel, S., McDougall, P. P. and Oviatt, B. M.
1996. International entrepreneurship: Past, present, and future.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20: 5-7.
 Hsee, C. and Weber, E. U. 1999. Cross-National Differences in Risk
Preference and Lay Predictions, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,
 Johnson, M. 1987. The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning,
imagination and reason. University of Chicago Press.
 Kashima, Y. 2005. Is culture a problem for social psychology? Asian
Journal of Social Psychology, 8: 19-38.
 Keiser, J.C. 2010. Identifying Variations in Thinking about the Nature of
Science: A Phenomenographic Study. University of Minnesota,
Available online from
 Kirkley, W. W. 2010. Self-determination and Entrepreneurship:
Personal Values as intrinsic motivators of Entrepreneurial Behaviour.
Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
 Kuratko, D. F. 2007. Entrepreneurial leadership in the 21st century:
Guest editor-s perspective. Journal of Leadership and Organizational
Studies, 13(1): 1-11.
 Landes, D. S. 1998. The wealth and poverty of nations: Why some are so
rich and some so poor. New York: W. W. Norton
 Lee, S. M. and Peterson, S. J. 2000. Culture, entrepreneurial orientation,
and global competitiveness. Journal of World Business, 35: 401-416.
 Leitch, C. M., Hill, F. M. and Harrison, R. T. 2010. The Philosophy and
Practice of Interpretivist Research in Entrepreneurship: Quality,
Validation, and Trust. Organizational Research Methods, 13: 67-84.
 Markus, H. R. and Kitayama, S. 1998. The cultural psychology of
personality. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29(1): 63-87.
 Marton, F. 1986. Phenomenography - A research approach to
investigating different understandings of reality. Journal of Thought, 21:
 Marton, F. 1995. Phenomenography
[cont.]. The International
Encyclopedia of Education, Second edition, 8., Eds. Torsten Husén & T.
Neville Postlethwaite, Pergamon, pp. 4424-4429.
 Marton, F. and S. Booth. 1997. Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, N.J.:
L. Erlbaum Associate
 Maslow, A. H. 1943. A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological
Review, 50(4): 370-396.
 McClelland, D. C. 1961. The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van
 McCraw, T. K. 1997. "American Capitalism" in Idem (ed.), Creating
Modern Capitalism: How Entrepreneurs, Companies, and Countries
Triumphed in Three Industrial Revolutions, Cambridge, MA.: Harvard
University Press, pp. 303-348.
 McDougall, P. P. 1989. International versus domestic entrepreneurship:
New venture strategic behavior and industry structure. Journal of
Business Venturing, 4(6): 387-400.
 McDougall, P. P., and Oviatt, B. M. 1997. International
entrepreneurship literature in the 1990s and directions for suture
research. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), Entrepreneurship 2000
(pp. 291-320). Chicago: Upstart.
 McGrath, R. G., MacMillan, I. C., and Scheinberg, S. 1992. Elitists,
risk-takers and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural
differences between entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs. Journal of
Business Venturing, 7(2): 115-135.
 Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L., Lant, T., McDougall, P. P., Morse, E. A.,
and Smith, J. B. 2002. Toward a theory of entrepreneurial cognition:
Rethinking the people side of entrepreneurship research.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27: 93-104.
 Morin, R. 2009. Take this job and love it: Job satisfaction highest
among the self-employed. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center
 Morse, J. M. 1997. ÔÇÿPerfectly healthy but dead-: The myth of inter-rater
reliability. Qualitative Health Research, 7(4): 445-447.
 Peterson, R. 1988. Understanding and encouraging entrepreneurship
internationally. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(2): 1-7.
 Richardson, J. T. E. 1999. The Concepts and Methods of
Phenomenographic Research. Review of Educational Research, 69(1):
 Sandberg, J. 1995. Are phenomenographic results reliable? Journal of
Nordic Educational Research, 15: 156-164.
 Sandberg, J. 1997. Are phenomenographic results reliable? Higher
Education Research and Development, 16(2): 203-212.
 Schumpeter, J. 1934. The theory of economics development. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press
 Shane, S. 1992. Why do some societies invent more than others?
Journal of Business Venturing, 7: 29-46.
 Silverman, D. 2000. Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook.
 Sjo¶üêÀstro¶üêÀm M. B. and Dahlgren L. O. 2002. Applying phenomenography
in nursing research, Journal of Advanced Nursing. 40(3): 339 - 345.
 Spector, P. E. 1988. Development of the Work Locus of Control Scale,
Journal of Occupational Psychology, 4: 335-340.
 Steinmetz, G. and Wright, E. O. 1989. The Fall and Rise of the Petty
Bourgeoisie: Changing Patterns of Self-Employment in the Postwar
United States. American Journal of Sociology, 94(5): 973-1018.
 Thomas, A. S. and Mueller, S. L. 2000. A case for comparative
entrepreneurship: Assessing the relevance of culture. Journal of
International Business Studies, 31: 287-301
 Venkataraman, S. 1997. The Distinctive Domain of Entrepreneurship
Research. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth,
 Weber, M. 1930. The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New
 Wellington, J. 2000. Education research: Contemporary issues and
practical approaches. London, UK: Continuum.
 Wit, G. de and Winden, F. A. A. M. van 1989. An empirical analysis of
self-employment in the Netherlands. Small Business Economics, 1 (4):
 Young, R. A., and Collin, A. 2004. Introduction: Constructivism and
social constructionism in the career field. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 64: 373-388