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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29524

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Indoor Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks
The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).
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[1] YoungMin Kwon, Kirill Mechitov, Sameer Sundresh, Wooyoung Kim, and Gul Agha. Resilient localization for sensor networks in outdoor environments. In Distributed Computing Systems, 2005. ICDCS 2005. Proceedings. 25th IEEE International Conference on, pages 643–652. IEEE, 2005.
[2] Neal Patwari, Alfred O Hero III, Matt Perkins, Neiyer S Correal, and Robert J O’dea. Relative location estimation in wireless sensor networks. Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on, 51(8):2137–2148, 2003.
[3] H¨useyin Akcan and Cem Evrendilek. Gps-free directional localization via dual wireless radios. Computer Communications, 35(9):1151–1163, 2012.
[4] Mussa Bshara, Umut Orguner, Fredrik Gustafsson, and Leo Van Biesen. Fingerprinting localization in wireless networks based on received-signal-strength measurements: A case study on wimax networks. Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, 59(1):283–294, 2010.
[5] Guoqiang Mao and Barıs¸ Fidan. Introduction to wireless sensor network localization. Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks, pages 1–32, 2009.
[6] Parameshwaran Krishnan, AS Krishnakumar, Wen-Hua Ju, Colin Mallows, and SN Gamt. A system for lease: Location estimation assisted by stationary emitters for indoor rf wireless networks. In INFOCOM 2004. Twenty-third AnnualJoint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, volume 2, pages 1001–1011. IEEE, 2004.
[7] Phongsak Prasithsangaree, Prashant Krishnamurthy, and Panos K Chrysanthis. On indoor position location with wireless lans. In Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2002. The 13th IEEE International Symposium on, volume 2, pages 720–724. IEEE, 2002.
[8] Teemu Roos, Petri Myllym¨aki, and Henry Tirri. A statistical modeling approach to location estimation. Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 1(1):59–69, 2002.
[9] Nirupama Bulusu, Vladimir Bychkovskiy, Deborah Estrin, and John Heidemann. Scalable, ad hoc deployable rf-based localization. In Proceedings of the Grace Hopper Conference on Celebration of Women in Computing, volume 31, 2002.
[10] Guoqiang Mao. Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Surveillance Techniques for Target Tracking: Monitoring and Surveillance Techniques for Target Tracking. IGI Global, 2009.
[11] Vaidyanathan Ramadurai and Mihail L Sichitiu. Simulation-based analysis of a localization algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Networks, Las Vegas, NV, 2003.
[12] Michael Allen, Sebnem Baydere, Elena Gaura, and Gurhan Kucuk. Evaluation of localization algorithms. Localization Algorithms and Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks. IGI Global, 2009.
[13] Ambili Thottam Parameswaran, Mohammad Iftekhar Husain, Shambhu Upadhyaya, et al. Is rssi a reliable parameter in sensor localization algorithms: An experimental study. In Field Failure Data Analysis Workshop (F2DA09), page 5, 2009.
[14] Qian Dong and Waltenegus Dargie. Evaluation of the reliability of rssi for indoor localization. In Wireless Communications in Unusual and Confined Areas (ICWCUCA), 2012 International Conference on, pages 1–6. IEEE, 2012.
[15] Zaher Merhi, Michel Nahas, Samih Abdul-Nabi, Amin Haj-Ali, and M Bayoumi. Rssi range estimation for indoor anchor based localization for wireless sensor networks. In Microelectronics (ICM), 2013 25th International Conference on, pages 1–4. IEEE, 2013.
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