Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste
The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):


[1] Eurostat. Waste Generation, 2010 (kg per inhabitant). Available: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Waste_st atistics
[2] EU Waste Statistics Regulation (EC 2150/2002) 2004-06. Available: http://publicdata.eu/dataset/eu-waste-statistics-regulation-ec-2150-2002- 2004-06
[3] WHO, 2011. Waste from health-care activities. Fact sheet n°253. World HealthOrganization.Available:
[4] WHO, 2009 How to Dispose Unused Medicines Available: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers/buyin gusingmedicinesafely/understandingover-thecountermedicines/ ucm107163.pdf
[5] US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), 2011. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, relevant literature. Available:
[6] Basel Convention Regional Centre, Bratislava. Strategy on Biomedical (Healthcare) Waste Management. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Skopje, January 2008,14-18
[7] Directive 2001/83/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Official journal L- 311,28/11/2001, pp.66-128, article 127b
[8] Directive 2004/27/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 amending 2001/83/EC on the community code relating to medicinal products for human use. Official journal L- 136 30/4/2004, pp. 57, article 127b
[9] Protocol on Liability and Compensation for Damage Resulting from Tran’s boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. Annex VIII; 72-79. Available: http://www.basel.int/Portals/4/ Basel%20Convention/docs/text/BaselConvention Text-e.pdf
[10] US FDA, 2012. How to dispose of unused medicines. Food and Drug Administration. Available:
[11] European Environmental Agency. Pharmaceuticals in the environment. EEA Technical report/No 1/2010, Copenhagen,2010
[12] WHO Fact sheet n° 231, April 2002 (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ factsheets/fs231/en/)
[13] Preparation of National Health-Care Waste Management Plans in Sub- Saharan Countries- Guidance Manual Secretariat of the Basel Convention and World Health Organization (http://www.basel.int/ Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/pub/techguid/gm_hc_sussahara_e.p df)
[14] Campagnolo, E. R; Jonson, K. R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C. S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J.E.; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K; Thu, K.M., 2002 “Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations”. The science of the total environment, 299:89-95
[15] German Advisory Council on the Environment, 2007. Pharmaceuticals in Environment. Statement April 2007. No. 12. Available at: http://www.unweltrat.de/english/edownloa/statemen/Stellung_Pharmace uticals_in _the_Environment_2007_eng.pdf
[16] Holm JV, Rügge K, Bjerg PL, Christensen TH. Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical organique compounds in the groundwater down gradient of a landfill (Grinsted, Denmark).Environ Sci. Technol. 1995; 29(5):1415-1420
[17] Choi CO. Pollution in solution, drug-resistance DNA as the latest fresh water threat. Scientific American. Januari 2007:22-23.
[18] Daughton CG, Ternes TA. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change ?Environ Health Perspect. 1999; 107 Suppl. 6: 907-938.
[19] Daughton CG. Cradle-to-Cradle Stewardship of Drugs for Minimizing Their Evironmental Disposition While Promoting Human Health Environ Health Perspect. 2003; Vol.111,No. 5
[20] Taylor D. Poulimare M. An initial survey of unused and expired medicine take back schemes in the Europian Union. Conference: pharmaceutical products in the environment : trends towards lowering occurrence and impact. KNAPPE International Conference, Nimes, France ;2008
[21] Glassmeyer S.T et al. Disposal practices for unwanted residential medications in the United States. Environment International. 35 (2009) 566-572.
[22] “Miljöpåverkanfrånläkemedelsamtkosmetiskaochhygieniskaprodukter”. (“Environmental effects of pharmaceuticals as well as cosmetics and hygiene products”, report by the Swedish MPA, 2004, contains a summary in English, www.lakemedelsverket.se)
[23] Generated waste by section of economic activity. State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia 2012, No : (www.stat.gov.mk)
[24] National Plan for Waste Management (2009-2015) of Republic of Macedonia (2009-2015), based on the National Strategy for Waste Management. Finaldraft document, October 2008
[25] Feasibility study for landfill "Drisla", 2011282292/EVT/EES/1/C 5th August 2011
Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007