Open Science Research Excellence

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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29306

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Lightweight Mirrors for Space X-Ray Telescopes
Future astronomical projects on large space x-ray imaging telescopes require novel substrates and technologies for the construction of their reflecting mirrors. The mirrors must be lightweight and precisely shaped to achieve large collecting area with high angular resolution. The new materials and technologies must be cost-effective. Currently, the most promising materials are glass or silicon foils. We focused on precise shaping these foils by thermal forming process. We studied free and forced slumping in the temperature region of hot plastic deformation and compared the shapes obtained by the different slumping processes. We measured the shapes and the surface quality of the foils. In the experiments, we varied both heat-treatment temperature and time following our experiment design. The obtained data and relations we can use for modeling and optimizing the thermal forming procedure.
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[1] Q. D. Wang, E. V. Gotthelf and C. C. Lang, "A faint discrete source origin for the highly ionized iron emission from the Galactic Centre region," Natur, vol. 415, pp. 148-150, 2002.
[2] R. Giacconi, A. Zirm, J. Wang, P. Rosati, M. Nonino, P. Tozzi, R. Gilli V. Mainieri, G. Hasinger, L. Kewley, J. Bergeron, S. Borgani, R. Gilmozzi, N. Grogin, A. Koekemoer, E. Schreier, W. Zheng, and C. Norman, "Chandra Deep Field South: The 1 Ms Catalog," ApJS, vol. 139, pp. 369-410, 2002.
[3] M. D. Stage, G. E. Allen, J. C. Houck, and J. E. Davis, "Cosmic-ray diffusion near the Bohm limit in the Cassiopeia-A supernova remnant," NatPh, vol. 2, pp. 614-619, 2006.
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[5] B. Luo, F. E. Bauer, W. N. Brandt, D. M. Alexander, B. D. Lehmer, D. P. Schneider, M. Brusa, A. Comastri, A. C. Fabian, A. Finoguenov, R. Gilli, G. Hasinger, A. E. Hornschemeier, A. Koekemoer, V. Mainieri, M. Paolillo, P. Rosati, O. Shemmer, J. D. Silverman, I. Smail, A. T. Steffen, and C. Vignali, "The Chandra Deep Field-South survey: 2 Ms source catalogs," ApJS, vol. 179, pp. 19-36, 2008.
[7] W. W. Zhang, M. Atanassova, P. Augustin, P. N. Blake, G. Byron, T. Carnahan, K. W. Chan, C. Fleetwood, C. He, M. D. Hill, M. Hong, L. Kolos, J. P. Lehan, J. R. Mazzarella, R. McClelland, L. Olsen, R. Petre, D. Robinson, R. Russell, T. T. Saha, M. Sharpe, M. V. Gubarev, W. D. Jones, S. L. O'Dell, W. Davis, D. R. Caldwell, M. Freeman, W. A. Podgorski, and P. B. Reid, "Mirror technology development for the International X-ray Observatory mission," Proc. SPIE, vol. 7437, 0Q:1- 12, 2009.
[8] M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Bavdaz, P. Conconi, O. Citterio, M. Civitani, P. Friedrich, D. Gallieni, B. Guldimann, F. Martelli, R. Negri, G. Pagano, G. Pareschi, G. Parodi, L. Proserpio, B. Salmaso, F. Scaglione, D. Spiga, G. Tagliaferri, L. Terzi, M. Tintori, M. Vongehr, E. Wille, A. Winter and A. Zambra, "Hot slumping glass technology for the grazing incidence optics of future missions with particular reference to IXO," Proc. SPIE, vol. 7732, pp.0C:1-12, 2010.
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[10] R. Hudec, L. Pina, V. Marsikova, A. Inneman, M. Skulinova, and M. Mika, "New Technologies for Future Space X-ray Telescopes," AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 1248, pp. 587-588, 2010.
[11] Y. Ezoe, T. Shirata, T. Ohashi, M. Ishida, K. Mitsuda, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita and K. Nakajima, "Development of high-resolution and lightweight x-ray optics with deformed silicon wafers," Proc. SPIE, vol. 7360, pp. 0B:1-8, 2009.
[12] K. Wallace, M. Bavdaz, P. Gondoin, M. J. Collon, R. G├╝nther, M. Ackermann, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Olde Riekerink, M. Blom, B. Lansdorp and L. Van de Vreede, "Silicon-pore optics development," Proc. SPIE, vol. 7437, pp. 0T:1-9, 2009.
[13] M. J. Collon, R. G├╝nther, M. Ackermann, R. Partapsing, G. Vacanti, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. Bavdaz, E. Wille, K. Wallace, M. Olde Riekerink, B. Lansdorp, L. de Vrede, L., C. van Baren, P. M├╝ller, M. Krumrey, and M. Freyberg, "Silicon-pore x-ray optics for IXO", Proc. SPIE, vol. 7732, pp. 1F:1-9, 2010.
[14] H. Wolter, "Spiegelsysteme streifenden Einfalls als abbildende Optiken f├╝r Röntgenstrahlen (Grazing incidence mirror systems as imaging optics for x rays)," AnP, vol. 445, pp. 94-114, 1952.
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[17] L. Prosperio, M. Civitani, M. Ghigo, and G. Pareschi, "Thermal shaping of thin glass substrates for segmented grazing incidence active optics," Proc. SPIE, vol. 7803, pp. 0K:1-11, 2010.
[18] 3t/index.html
[19] K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, and K. Morishita, "Systematic studies of Si and Ge hemispherical concave wafers prepared by plastic deformation," J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 311, pp. 4587-4592, 2009.
[20] K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara, W. Pan and H. Okuda, ÔÇ×Shaped siliconcrystal wafers obtained by plastic deformation and their application to silicon-crystal lenses," Nature Materials, vol. 4, pp. 47-50, 2005.
[21] K. Nakajima, K. Fujiwara and K. Morishita, "Systematic studies of Si and Ge hemispherical concave wafers prepared by plastic deformation," J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 311, pp. 4587-4592, 2009.
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