Modern Day Second Generation Military Filipino Amerasians and Ghosts of the U.S. Military Prostitution System in West Central Luzon’s ‘AMO Amerasian Triangle’
Second generation military Filipino Amerasians
comprise a formidable contemporary segment of the estimated
250,000-plus biracial Amerasians in the Philippines today. Overall,
they are a stigmatized and socioeconomically marginalized diaspora;
historically, they were abandoned or estranged by U.S. military
personnel fathers assigned during the century-long Colonial, Post-
World War II and Cold War Era of permanent military basing (1898-
1992). Indeed, U.S. military personnel are assigned in smaller
numbers in the Philippines today. This inquiry is an outgrowth of two
recent small sample studies. The first surfaced the impact of the U.S.
military prostitution system on formation of the ‘Derivative
Amerasian Family Construct’ on first generation Amerasians; a
second, qualitative case study suggested the continued effect of the
prostitution systems' destructive impetuous on second generation
Amerasians. The intent of this current qualitative, multiple-case study
was to actively seek out second generation sex industry toilers. The
purpose was to focus further on this human phenomenon in the postbasing
and post-military prostitution system eras. As background, the
former military prostitution apparatus has transformed into a modern
dynamic of rampant sex tourism and prostitution nationwide. This is
characterized by hotel and resorts offering unrestricted carnal access,
urban and provincial brothels (casas), discos, bars and pickup clubs,
massage parlors, local barrio karaoke bars and street prostitution. A
small case study sample (N = 4) of female and male second
generation Amerasians were selected. Sample formation employed a
non-probability ‘snowball’ technique drawing respondents from the
notorious Angeles, Metro Manila, Olongapo City ‘AMO Amerasian
Triangle’ where most former U.S. military installations were sited
and modern sex tourism thrives. A six-month study and analysis of
in-depth interviews of female and male sex laborers, their families
and peers revealed a litany of disturbing, and troublesome
experiences. Results showed profiles of debilitating human poverty,
history of family disorganization, stigmatization, social
marginalization and the ghost of the military prostitution system and
its harmful legacy on Amerasian family units. Emerging were testimonials of wayward young people ensnared in a maelstrom of
deep economic deprivation, familial dysfunction, psychological
desperation and societal indifference. The paper recommends that
more study is needed and implications of unstudied psychosocial and
socioeconomic experiences of distressed younger generations of
military Amerasians require specific research. Heretofore apathetic or
disengaged U.S. institutions need to confront the issue and formulate
activist and solution-oriented social welfare, human services and
immigration easement policies and alternatives. These institutions
specifically include academic and social science research agencies,
corporate foundations, the U.S. Congress, and Departments of State,
Defense and Health and Human Services, and Homeland Security
(i.e. Citizen and Immigration Services) It is them who continue to
endorse a laissez-faire policy of non-involvement over the entire
Filipino Amerasian question. Such apathy, the paper concludes,
relegates this consequential but neglected blood progeny to the status
of humiliating destitution and exploitation. Amerasians; thus, remain
entrapped in their former colonial, and neo-colonial habitat.
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