Service life of existing reinforced concrete (RC)
structures in coastal towns of Sabah has been affected very much.
Concrete crack, spalling of concrete cover and reinforcement rusting
of RC buildings are seen even within 5 years of construction in
Sabah. Hence, in this study a new mix design of concrete grout was
developed using locally available materials and investigated under
two curing conditions and workability, compressive strength,
Accelerated Mortar Bar Test (AMBT), water absorption, volume of
permeable voids (VPV), Sorptivity and 90-days salt ponding test
were conducted. The compressive strength of concrete grout at the
age 90 days was found to be 44.49 N/mm2 under water curing. It was
observed that the percentage of mortar bar length change was below
1% for developed concrete grout. The water absorption of the
concrete grout was in between the range of 0.88 % to 3.60 % under
two different curing up to the age 90 days. It was also observed that
the VPV of concrete was in the range of 0 % to 9.75 and 2.44% to
13.05% under water curing and site curing respectively. It was found
that the Sorptivity of the concrete grout under water curing at the age
of 28 days is 0.211mm/√min and at the age 90 day are 0.067
mm/√min. The chloride content decreased greatly, 90% after a depth
of 15 mm. It was noticed that the site cured samples showed higher
chloride contents near surface compared to water cured samples.
This investigation suggested that the developed mix design of
concrete grout using locally available construction materials can be
used for crack repairing of existing RC structures in Sabah.
 Xianming S , Ning X, Keith F, Jing G, 2012, Durability of steel
reinforced concrete in chloride environments: An overview, Construction
and Building Materials, Vol. 30 , pp:125-138.
 Kamyab Z. H, 2010, Structural Behaviour of Deteriorated Concrete
Structures Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Chalmers
University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
 Horrigmoe, G., 2000, Future Needs in Concrete Repair Technology,
Proceedings, Concrete Technology for a Sustainable Development in the
21st Century , E & FN Spon, London.
 Al-Gahtani, A.S, 2010, Effect of curing methods on the properties of
plain and blended cement concretes, Construction and Building
Materials, Vol.24,(3) , pp :308-314.
 ASTM C 642 -97, 1997, Standard Test Method for Density, Absorption,
and Voids in Hardened Concrete.
 ASTM C 1585 - 04, 2004, Standard Test Method for Measurement of
Rate of Absorption of Water by Hydraulic Cement Concretes.
 ASTM C 1543 - 02, 2002, Standard Test Method for Determining the
Penetration of Chloride Ion into Concrete by Ponding.
 Shan Somayaji, 2001, "Civil Engineering Materials", Second Edition,
Prentice Hall, Inc
 ASTM C 1260-05, 2005, Standard test method for potential alkali
reactivity of aggregates (mortar-bar method). Annual Book of Standards,
ASTM, West Conshohocken.
 Bungey J.H and Millard S.S , 1996,Testing of Concrete in Structures,
Blackie Academic &professional, U.K., pp. 286.
 BS1881: Part 122:1983. Testing concrete. Methods for determination of
 Safiuddin, M. and Hearn, N. 2005. Comparison of ASTM saturation
techniques for measuring the permeable porosity of concrete, Cement
and Concrete Research 35 (5): 1008-1013.
 Dinakar, P, Babu K.G., Santhanam M, 2008, Durability Properties of
High Volume Fly Ash Self Compacting Concrete, Cement and Concrete
Composites, Vol. 30, pp: 880-886.
 Gambir, M.L., 2004, Concrete Technology, Civil Engineering Series,
Third Edition, Tata McGrow-Hill
 Neville, A.M. 2002. Properties of Concrete, Fourth and Final Edition
Standards updated to 2002, Prentice Hall.
 McPolin D., Basheer P., Long A., Grattan K. and Sun T. 2005,
Obtaining progressive chloride profiles in cementitious materials"
Construction & Building Materials, Vol.19, pp. 666-673.