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10006478
Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes
Abstract:
The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

References:

[1] Improving Lightning Safety of Petroleum Storage Tanks, Joseph A. Lanzoni, Lightning Eliminators & Consultants, Inc. Boulder, Colorado USA, October 2009.
[2] Henry Persson and Anders Lönnermark, Tank Fires, Review of Fire Incidents 1951–2003, Brandforsk Project 513-021.
[3] Large Atmospheric Tank Fires (LASTFIRE), Project Analysis of Incident Frequency Survey, June 1997.
[4] API/EI Research Report 545-A, Verification of lightning protection requirements for above ground hydrocarbon storage tanks, First Edition, October 2009.
[5] Learned lessons results from the ignition and burning of one of the crude oil tank related to one of Egyptian oil Companies that was subjected to a strong lightning strike, EGPC fax December 2015.
[6] Lightning Protection of Floating Roof Tanks, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) Volume-02, Issue-10, pp-11-21, 2013.
[7] Integrated Lightning Solutions Worldwide, spline ball ionizer (SBI) Lightning Eliminators & Consultants, Inc. 2012, Rev. 3/12.
[8] API Standard 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction, Fifth Edition, November 2014.
[9] http://geology.com/articles/lightning-map.shtml, by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite between 1995 and 2002.
[10] NFPA-780 (2014), Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems. National Fire Protection Association.
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