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Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos
In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain. The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and output bit-rate for most test videos.
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[1] Y. C. Lin and J. H. Li, "Data Hiding with Rate-Distortion Optimization on H.264AVC Video" , in Pro. 23th IPPR Conf. on Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, CVGIP. Aug. 15-17, 2010.
[2] S. D. Lin, C. Y. Chuang, and M.J. Chen, "A Watermarking Scheme by Changing the Number of Nonzero Coefficients in H.264/AVC Encoder", in Pro. 22th IPPR Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, CVGIP. Aug. 23-25, 2009.
[3] C. C. Wang, Y. C. Hsu, "A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for H.264/AVC Video Authentication," Optical Engineering, vol. 49, (2), 027003-1, Feb 2010.
[4] Z. Shahid, M. Chaumont and W. Puech, "Considering the Reconstruction Loop for Data Hiding of Intra and Inter Frames of H.264/AVC", in Pro. European Signal Processing Conf., EUSIPCO 2009.
[5] X. Huang, Y. Abe, and I. Echizen, "Capacity Adaptive Synchronized Acoustic Steganography Scheme", Journal of Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 72-90, Apr, 2010.
[6] J. Tian, "Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 8, pp.890-896, 2003.
[7] Z. Ni, Y. Q. Shi, N. Ansari and W. Su, "Reversible data hiding," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems Video Technology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 354-362, 2006.
[8] W. N. Lie, Tom C. I. Lin, D. C. Tsai, and G. S. Lin, "Error Resilient Coding Based on Reversible Data Embedding Technique for H.264/AVC Video," in Proc. of IEEE International Conf. on Multimedia & Expo, ICME, July 2005.
[9] K. L Chung, Y. H. Huang, P. C. Chang, and H. Y. M. Liao, "Reversible Data Hiding Based Approach for Intra Frame Error Concealment in H.264/AVC," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 1643-1647, November, 2010.
[10] Iain E. G. Richardson, "H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression," John Willy & Sons Ltd, 2003.
[11] K. S├╝hring, H.264/AVC Reference Software Group
[On-line]. Available:, Joint Model 12.2 (JM12.2), Jan. 2009.
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