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10003005
Shear Strength of Reinforced Web Openings in Steel Beams
Abstract:
The floor beams of steel buildings, cold-formed steel floor joists in particular, often require large web openings, which may affect their shear capacities. A cost effective way to mitigate the detrimental effects of such openings is to weld/fasten reinforcements. A difficulty associated with an experimental investigation to establish suitable reinforcement schemes for openings in shear zone is that moment always coexists with the shear, and thus, it is impossible to create pure shear state in experiments, resulting in moment influenced results. However, Finite Element Method (FEM) based analysis can be conveniently used to investigate the pure shear behaviour of webs including webs with reinforced openings. This paper presents the details associated with the finite element analysis of thick/thin-plates (representing the web of hot-rolled steel beam, and the web of a cold-formed steel member) having a large reinforced opening. The study considered simply-supported rectangular plates subjected to in-plane shear loadings until failure (including post-buckling behaviour). The plate was modelled using geometrically non-linear quadrilateral shell elements, and non-linear stress-strain relationship based on experiments. Total Langrangian with large displacement/small strain formulation was used for such analyses. The model also considered the initial geometric imperfections. This study considered three reinforcement schemes, namely, flat, lip, and angle reinforcements. This paper discusses the modelling considerations and presents the results associated with the various reinforcement schemes under consideration.
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References:

[1] Pannock, R. W., (2001), Strength of Light Gauge Cold Formed Steel Joists with Web Perforation: Senior Report, University of New Brunswick, New Brunswick, Canada.
[2] Acharya, S. R., (2009), Reinforcement Schemes for Cold-Formed Steel Joists Having Web Openings, Doctoral Dissertation, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, pp-332.
[3] Acharya, S. R, Sivakumaran, K. S. and Young, B. (2013), "Reinforcement schemes for cold-formed steel joists with a large web opening in shear zone—An experimental investigation", Thin-Walled Structures, Volume 72, November 2013, Pages 28–36.
[4] AISI, (2012), Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method for One and Two Family Dwellings, American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington DC, USA. (AISI S230-07- Original publication is in 2007 and reaffirmed in 2012).
[5] Chen, B., (2009), Shear Behavior of Steel Plates with Reinforced Openings, Master Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, pp-208.
[6] ADINA User Manual, (2008), Automatic Dynamic Incremental Nonlinear Analysis, ADINA R & D, Inc., Watertown, MA USA.
[7] Rondal, J., (1987), Residual stresses in cold-rolled profiles, Construction and Building Material, 1(3):0–0.
[8] Sivakumaran, K.S. and Abdel-Rahman, N., (1998), A Finite Element analysis Model for the Behavior of Cold-formed Steel Members, Thin- Walled Structures, 31(1998) 305-324.
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