S. S. Sachdeva and R. Billinton, Optimum network VAR planning by
nonlinear programming. IEEE Trans. on Pwr. Apparatus and Syst. vol.
PAS-92, no. 4, pp. 1217-1225, 1973.
 A.A. Abou El-Ela and M.A. Abido, "Optimal operation strategy for
reactive power control Modeling", simulation and control, part A vol.
41, no. 3, AMSE Press, pp. 19-40, 1992.
 R. Mota-Palomino and V.H. Quintana, "Sparse reactive power scheduling
by a penalty-function linear programming technique", IEEE Trans Pwr
Syst , vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 31-39, 1986.
 V.H. Quintana, M. Satos-nieto, "Reactive power dispatch by successive
quadratic programming", IEEE Trans.EnergyConvers.,vol.4,no3,pp.425-
 M. R. Bjelogrlic, M. S. Calovic, B. S. Babic, et. al., "Application of
Newton-s optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control", IEEE
Trans Pwr Syst, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1447-1454, 1990.
 E. Rezania, S. M. Shahidehpour, "Real power loss minimization using
interior point method", Int J Elec Pwr Energy Syst, vol.23,no.1,pp.45-56,
 Wei Yan, J. Yu, D. C. Yu and K. Bhattarai, "A new optimal reactive
power flow model in rectangular form and its solution by predictor
corrector primal dual interior point method", IEEE Trans. Pwr.
 K. Aoki, M. Fan, A. Nishikori, "Optimal VAR planning by approximation
method for recursive mixed-integer linear programming", IEEE Trans. on
Pwr. Syst., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1741-1747, 1988.
 N. Deeb, S.M. Shahidehpour, Linear reactive power optimization in a
large power network using the decomposition approach, IEEE Trans. on
Pwr. Syst., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 428-438, 1990.
 F.C. Lu, Y.Y. Hsu, "Reactive power/voltage control in a distribution
substation using dynamic programming", IEE Proc. Gener., Transm. and
Distrib., vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 639-645, 1995.
 K. Iba, "Reactive power optimization by genetic algorithm", IEEE Trans.
on Pwr. Syst , vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 685-692, 1994.
 K.Y. Lee, Y.M. Park, Optimization method for reactive power planning
by using a modified simple genetic algorithm, IEEE Trans. on Pwr. Syst,
vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1843-1850, 1995.
 Q. H. Wu, Y. J. Cao, and J. Y. Wen, "Optimal reactive power dispatch
using an adaptive genetic algorithm," Int. J. Elect. Power Energy Syst.,
vol. 20, pp. 563-569, Aug. 1998.
 G. A. Bakare, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, and U. O. Aliyu, "Reactive
power and voltage control of the Nigerian grid system using microgenetic
algorithm," in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, vol. 2, pp.
1916-1922, San Francisco, CA, 2005.
 W. Yan, F. Liu, C.Y. Chung, K.P. Wong, "A hybrid genetic algorithminterior
point method for optimal reactive power flow", IEEE Trans. on
Pwr. Syst., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1163-1169, 2006.
 Q.H. Wu, J.T. Ma, "Power system optimal reactive power dispatch using
evolutionary programming", IEEE Trans. on Pwr. Syst., vol. 10, no. 3,
pp. 1243-1249, 1995.
 L.L. Lai, J.T. Ma, "Application of evolutionary programming to reactive
power planning-comparison with nonlinear programming approach",
IEEE Trans. on Pwr. Syst., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 198-206, 1997.
 H. Yoshida et al., "A particle swarm optimization for reactive power
and voltage control considering voltage security assessment," IEEE Trans.
Power Syst., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1232-1239, Nov. 2001.
 W. Zhang, Y. Liu, and M. Clerc, "An adaptive PSO algorithm for reactive
power optimization," in Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Advance in Power System
Control, Operatation and Management, Hong Kong, Nov. 2003, pp. 302-
 B. Zhao, C. X. Guo, and Y. J. Cao, "A multi-agent based particle swarm
optimization approach for reactive power dispatch," IEEE Trans. Pwr.
Syst., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1070-1078, May 2005.
 A. A. A. Esmin, G. Lambert-Torres, and A. C. Zambroni de Souza, "A
hybrid particle swarm optimization applied to loss power minimization,"
IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 859-866, May 2005.
 M. S. Kumari and M. Sydulu, "Improved particle swarm algorithm
applied to optimal reactive power control," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf.
Industrial Technology, 2006, pp. 1873-1878.
 J. G. Vlachogiannis and K. Y. Lee, "A comparative study on particle
swarm optimization for optimal steady-state performance of power systems,"
IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1718-1728, Nov.
 G. Cai, Z. Ren, and T. Yu, "Optimal reactive power dispatch based
on modified particle swarm optimization considering voltage stability in
Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, 2007, pp. 1-5.
 C. H. Liang, C.Y. Chung, K. P. Wong, X. Z. Duan, C. T. Tse, "Study of
differential evolution for reactive power flow", IET Proc. Gener. Transm.
Distrib., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 253-260, 2007.
 G. A. Bakare, G. Krost, G. K.Venayagamoorthy, U. O. Aliyu, "Differential
evolution approach for reactive power optimization of Nigerian grid
system," in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, Tampa, FL,
pp. 1-6, Jun. 24-28 2007.
 M. Varadarajan, K. S. Swarup, "Network loss minimization with voltage
security using differential evolution",Elect.Pwr Syst.Res.,vol.78,pp.815-
 C. Y. Chung, C. H. Liang, K. P. Wong, X. Z. Duan, "Hybrid algorithm
for differential evolution and evolutionary programming for optimal
ractive power flow", IET Proc. Gener., Transm. & Distrib., vol. 4, no.
1, pp. 84-93, 2010.
 C. Dai, W. Chen, "Seeker Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Reactive
Power Dispatch", IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1218-31,
 Dan Simon, "Biogeography-Based Optimization", IEEE Transaction on
Evolutionary Computation, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 702-713, December 2008.
 Bhattacharya A., Chattopadhyay P.K., "Biogeography-Based Optimization
for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems", IEEE Trans. on
Power Syst., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1064-1075, May 2010.
 Tinney, W.F., Hart, C.E., "Power Flow Solution by Newton-s Method",
IEEE Trans. on Pwr Apparatus and Syst., vol.PAS-86,no.11,pp. 1449-60,
 K. Lee, Y. Park and J. Ortiz, "A united approach to optimal real and
reactive power dispatch", IEEE Trans Pwr Appar Syst vol. PAS-104, no.
5, pp. 1147-1153, 1985.
 The IEEE 57-Bus Test System, Available online:
 K. Mahadevan, P. S. Kannan, "Comprehensive learning Particle Swarm
Optimization for Reactive Power Dispatch," Int. J. Applied Soft Computing,
vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 641-652, March 2010.