Structure and Functions of Urban Surface Water System in Coastal Areas: The Case of Almere
In the context of global climate change, flooding and sea level rise is increasingly threatening coastal urban areas, in which large population is continuously concentrated. Dutch experiences in urban water system management provide high reference value for sustainable coastal urban development projects. Preliminary studies shows the urban water system in Almere, a typical Dutch polder city, have three kinds of operational modes, achieving functions as: (1) coastline control – strong multiple damming system prevents from storm surges and maintains sufficient capacity upon risks; (2) high flexibility – large area and widely scattered open water system greatly reduce local runoff and water level fluctuation; (3) internal water maintenance – weir and sluice system maintains relatively stable water level, providing excellent boating and landscaping service, coupling with water circulating model maintaining better water quality. Almere has provided plenty of hints and experiences for ongoing development of coastal cities in emerging economies.
 M.L. Martínez et. al., "The coasts of our world: Ecological, economic and social importance (Periodical style)". Ecological Economics. vol. 63, Issues 2-3, 1 August 2007, pp. 254-272.
 U. N. Population Division. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision, Volume III. United Nations, New York, 2001.
 John Tibbetts, "Coastal cities: living on the edge (Unpublished work style)", unpublished.
 Don Hinrichsen, "The coastal population explosion (Unpublished work style)", unpublished.
 Jane Duxbury, Srah Dickinson, "Principles for sustainable governance of the coastal zone: In the context of coastal disasters (Periodical style)", Ecological Economics, vol. 63, Issues 2-3, 1 August 2007, pp. 319-330.
 G. P. van de Ven, Man-made lowlands: History of water management and land reclamation in the Netherlands, Utrecht: Strichting Matrijs, 2004.
 Rijkwaterstaat, Water Management in the Netherlands (Book style), February 2011, pp. 22-26.
 T. Schuetze, "Climate adaptive urban design with water in Dutch polders (Unpublished work style)", unpublished.
 Schuetze T. "Diagrams of average monthly rainfall and precipitation in the Netherlands". After: KNMI, Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut. Gemiddelde neerslaghoeveelheid in mm & Verdamping volgens Makkink in mm (for Vlissingen, De Kooy, Eelde, De Bilt, Maastricht, averaged for the period 1971-2000). De Bilt, The Netherlands, 2008.
 Zhou Changjiang, "Overview of the Dutch water management", Guangdong Hydropower Technology, vol. 1, 1987.
 Peter Minnema, "Giving and taking: urban expansion in Almere based on water management criteria (Unpublished work style)", unpublished.
 Van Dam, Petra J E M. "Sinkind peat bogs: Environmental change in Holland", Environmental History, Jan 2001, pp. 1350-1550.
 Tjalingii S. "The water issues in the existing city". In: Hooimeyer F., Toorn Vrijthoof W.v.d.(ed.) More Urban Water: Design and Management of Dutch Water Cities. Urban Water Series, Taylor & Francis/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherland, 2008.
 Tjallingii S. "Ecological Conditions. Strategies and Structures in environmental planning". vol.2, IBN Scientific Contributions. Wageningen: DLO Institute to Forestry and Nature Research (IBNDLO), Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1996.
 F.L. Hooimeijer er al. Atlas of Dutch Water Cities, Amsterdam: Sun Architecture, 2009.