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Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29196

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Supplementary JAVA Programming Course for e-Learning with Small-Group Instruction
We have designed and implemented e-Learning materials for a JAVA programming course since 2004 and have found that “normal” students, meaning motivated and capable students, can successfully learn the course material taught in a fully online manner. However, for “weaker” students, meaning those lacking motivation, experience, and/or aptitude, the results have been unsatisfactory, and such students thus fall into the supplementary category. From 2007 to 2008, we offered a face-to-face class with small-group instruction for the weaker students, while we provided the fully online course for the normal students. Consequently, we succeeded in helping the weaker students to overcome their programming phobia and develop the ability to create basic programs.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] Ono, H. (2005). Basic academic ability construction of Japanese universities students ---- observation from placement tests, A Development of Placement Test and E-learning System for Japanese University Students, National Institute of Multimedia Education, Japan, pp. 1–6.
[2] Campanella, S., Dimauro, G., Ferrante, A., Impedovo, D., Impedovo, S., Lucchese, M. G., Modugno, R., Pirlo, G., Sarcinella, L., Stasolla, E., and Trullo, C. A. (2008). E-Learning platforms in the Italian universities: the technological solutions at the University of Bari, WSEAS Transactions on Advances in Engineering Education, 1(5), 12–19.
[3] Cho, K., Okuda, Y., Takeno, S., and Otsu, A. (2006). A preliminary study on dropout factors in e-Learning of English – learners’ motivation, preference of learning activities, and language-learning strategies, LET Kyushu-Okinawa Bulletin, 6, 33–47.
[4] Al-Jarf, R. (2005). The effects of online grammar instruction on low proficiency EFL college students’ achievement, Asian EFL Journal, 7(4), 10th Article.
[5] Takaoka, E., and Ishii, W. (2007). A dedicated online Java programming course: design, development and assessment. In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (E-Learn), 484–494.
[6] Takaoka, E. (2008). Java programming for supplementary students. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (EDMEDIA), 4435-4440.
[7] Widmar, G. (1994). Supplemental instruction: from small beginnings to national program. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 60, 3-10.
[8] Burmeister, S., Kenney, P., and Nice, D. (1996). Analysis of effectiveness of SI sessions for college algebra, calculus, and statistics. In Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education II, Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, 145-154.
[9] Etter, E. R., Burmeister, S. L., and Elder, R. J. (2001) Improving student performance and retention via supplemental instruction, Journal of Accounting and Education 18(4), 355-368.
[10] Kochenour, E., Jolley, D., Kaup, J., Patrick, D., Roach, K., and Wenzler, L. (1997). Supplemental instruction: an effective component of student affairs programming. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 577-586.
[11] Warren, B., and Tonsetic, R. (1997-1998). Supporting large classes with supplemental instruction (SI), Journal of Staff, Program, and Organizational Development, 15, 47-54.
[12] Webster, T., and Dee, K. (1998). Supplemental instruction integrated into an introductory engineering course. Journal of Engineering Education, 87, 377-383.
[13] Longden, B. (2006). An institutional response to changing student expectations and their impact on retention rates, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 28(2), 173-187.
[14] Joo, Y. J., Park, S. H., and Cho, H. K. (2008). Construction and validation of a drop-out scale in cyber university. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (EDMEDIA), 914-919.
[15] Morgan, C. K., and Tam, M. (1999). Unraveling the complexities of distance education and student attrition, Distance Education, 20(1), 96-105.
[16] Frankola, K. (2001). Why online learners drop out, Business Services Industry,
[17] Martinez, M. (2003). High attrition rates in e-Learning: challenges, predictors, and solutions, 071403MGT-L.pdf
[18] Salmon, G. (2004). E-moderating: The Key To Teaching and Learning Online, Second Edition, RoutledgeFalmer, London.
[19] Tyler-Smith, K. (2006). Early attrition among first time eLearners: a review of factors that contribute to drop-out, withdrawal and non-completion rates of adult learners undertaking eLearning programmes, MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 2(2), June.
[20] Kunimune, H., Niimura, M., Wasaki, K., and Fuwa Y. (2005). The current activities and the evaluations of graduate school of science and technology on the Internet, Shinshu University, Transactions of Japanese Society for Information and Systems in Education, 22(4), 264-271.
[21] Kendall, M. (2001). Teaching online to campus-based students: the experience of using WebCT for the community information module at Manchester Metropolitan University, Education for Information, 19, 325-346.
[22] Sasaki, S., Watanabe, H., Takai, K., Arai, M., and Takei, S. (2005). A practice example of object-oriented programming education using WebCT. In Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Towards Sustainable and Scalable Educational Innovations Informed by the Learning Sciences: Sharing Good Practices of Research, Experimentation and Innovation, 871-874.
[23] Willging, P. A., and Johnson, S. D. (2004). Factors that influence students’ decision to drop out of online courses, Journal for Asynchronous Learning Networks, 8(4), 105-118.
[24] Takaoka, E. (2006). A learner-friendly and effective multimedia content studying application for IT on broadband networks. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (EDMEDIA), 2636-2643.

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