Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29609

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
The Effect of Curing Temperature and Rice Husk Ash Addition on the Behaviour of Sulfate-Rich Clay after Lime Stabilization
In the western region of Paraguay, the poor condition of the roads has negatively affected the development of this zone, where the absence of petrous material has led engineers to opt for the stabilization of soils with lime or cement as the main structure for bases and subbases of these roads. In several areas of this region, high sulfate contents have been found both in groundwater and in soils, which, when reacted with lime or cement, generate a new problem instead of solving it. On the other hand, the use of industrial waste as granulated slag and fly ash proved to be a sustainable practice widely used in the manufacture of cement, and now also, in the stabilization of soils worldwide. Works related to soils containing sulfates stabilized either with granulated slag or fly ash and lime shown a good performance in their mechanical behaviour. This research seeks to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of soils with high contents of sulfates stabilized with lime by curing them both, at the normalized temperature (23 ± 2 °C) and at 40 ± 2 °C. Moreover, it attempts to asses if the addition of rice husk ash has a positive influence on the new geomaterial. The 40 ± 2 °C curing temperature was selected trying to simulate the average local temperature in summer and part of spring session whereas rice husk ash is an affordable waste produced in the region. An extensive experimental work, which includes unconfined compression, durability and free swell tests were carried out considering different dry unit weights, lime content and the addition of 20% of rice husk ash. The results showed that the addition of rice husk ash increases the resistance and durability of the material and decreases the expansion of this, moreover, the specimens cured at a temperature of 40 ± 2 °C showed higher resistance, better durability and lower expansion compared to those cured at the normalized temperature of 23 ± 2 °C.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] Hunter, D. (1988) Lime-induced heave in sulfate-bearing clay soils. Journal of geotechnical engineering.
[2] Mitchell, J. K.; Dermatas, D. (1992) Clay soil heave caused by lime-sulfate reactions. Innovations and uses for lime. ASTM International.
[3] Kota, P. B. V. S.; Hazlett, D.; Perrin, L. (1996b) Sulfate-bearing soils: Problems with calcium-based stabilizers. Transportation research record.
[4] Puppala, A. J.; Saride, S.; Dermatas, D. (2010) Forensic Investigations to Evaluate Sulfate-Induced Heave Attack on a Tunnel Shotcrete Liner. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, v. 22, n. 9, p. 914–922.
[5] Petry, T. M.; Little, D. N. (1962) Update on Sulfate-Induced Heave in Treated Clays: Problematic Sulfate Levels. Transportation Research Record, v. 1362, p. 51, 1992.
[6] Sherwood, P. T. Effect of sulfates on cement- and lime-stabilized soils. Highway Research Board Bulletin, n. 353, p. 98–107.
[7] Ingles, O. G.; Metcalf, J. B. (1972) Soil stabilization: principles and practice. Butterworths.
[8] Dermatas, D. (1995) Ettringite-Induced Swelling in Soils: State-of-the-Art. Applied Mechanics Reviews, v. 48, n. 10, p. 659–673, 1995.
[9] Consoli, N.; Bittar, E.; Quiñonez Samaniego, A.; et al. (2018) The Effect of Mellowing and Coal Fly Ash Addition on the Behavior of Sulfate-Rich Dispersive Clay after Lime Stabilization. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.
[10] Consoli, N. C., Bittar Marin, E. J., Quiñónez Samaniego, R. A., Heineck, K. S., & Johann, A. D. R. (2018). Use of Sustainable Binders in Soil Stabilization. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.
[11] Phetchuay, C.; Horpibulsuk. S.; Arulrajah, A.; Suksiripattanapong, C.; and Udomchai, A. (2016). Strength development in soft marine clay stabilized by fly ash and calcium carbide residue based geopolymer.", Applied Clay Science, 127-128(July), 134-142.
[12] Consoli, N. C.; Koltermann da Silva, J.; Scheuermann Filho, H. C.; and Rivoire, A. B. (2017). Compacted clay-industrial wastes blends: Long term performance under extreme freeze-thaw and wet-dry conditions. Applied Clay Science, 146(September), 404-410.
[13] Sherard, J. L., Dunnigan, L. P., Decker, R. S., & Steele, E. F. (1976). Pinhole test for identifying dispersive soils. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 102(1), 69–85.
[14] McCarthy, M. J., Csetenyi, L. J., Sachdeva, A., & Jones, M. R. (2009). Role of Fly Ash in the Mitigation of Swelling in Lime Stabilised Sulfate-Bearing Soils. In World of Coal Ash Conference (pp. 1–18).
[15] Puppala, A., Hoyos, L., Viyanant, C., & Musenda, C. (2001). Fiber and fly ash stabilization methods to treat soft expansive soils. In Soft Ground Technology (pp. 136-145).
[16] Consoli, N. C., & Alejandro, R. (2016). Durability, Strength, and Stiffness of Dispersive Clay–Lime Blends. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.
[17] Talluri, N., Puppala, A., Chittoori, B., Gaily, A., & Harris, P. (2013). Stabilization of High-Sulfate Soils by Extended Mellowing. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2363, 96–104.
[18] Consoli, N. C., Prietto, P. D. M., Carraro, J. A. H., & Heineck, K. S. (2001). Behavior of compacted soil-fly ash-carbide lime mixtures. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(9), 774-782.
[19] Howard, I. L., & Cost, T. (2014). Curing Temperature Effects on Soils Stabilized with Portland Cement Having Different Sulfate Contents. In Geo-Congress 2014: Geo-characterization and Modeling for Sustainability (pp. 2159-2168).
[20] Consoli, N. C., Quiñónez Samaniego, R. A., González, L. E., Bittar, E. J., & Cuisinier, O. (2018). Impact of Severe Climate Conditions on Loss of Mass, Strength, and Stiffness of Compacted Fine-Grained Soils–Portland Cement Blends. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(8), 04018174.
[21] Ismail, I., Bernal, S. A., Provis, J. L., Hamdan, S., & van Deventer, J. S. (2013). Microstructural changes in alkali activated fly ash/slag geopolymers with sulfate exposure. Materials and structures, 46(3), 361.
Vol:13 No:05 2019Vol:13 No:04 2019Vol:13 No:03 2019Vol:13 No:02 2019Vol:13 No:01 2019
Vol:12 No:12 2018Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007