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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29311

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The Location of Park and Ride Facilities Using the Fuzzy Inference Model
The paper presents a method in which the expert knowledge is applied to fuzzy inference model. Even a less experienced person could benefit from the use of such a system, e.g. urban planners, officials. The analysis result is obtained in a very short time, so a large number of the proposed locations can also be verified in a short time. The proposed method is intended for testing of locations of car parks in a city. The paper shows selected examples of locations of the P&R facilities in cities planning to introduce the P&R. The analyses of existing objects are also shown in the paper and they are confronted with the opinions of the system users, with particular emphasis on unpopular locations. The results of the analyses are compared to expert analysis of the P&R facilities location that was outsourced by the city and the opinions about existing facilities users that were expressed on social networking sites. The obtained results are consistent with actual users’ feedback. The proposed method proves to be good, but does not require the involvement of a large experts team and large financial contributions for complicated research. The method also provides an opportunity to show the alternative location of P&R facilities. Although the results of the method are approximate, they are not worse than results of analysis of employed experts. The advantage of this method is ease of use, which simplifies the professional expert analysis. The ability of analyzing a large number of alternative locations gives a broader view on the problem. It is valuable that the arduous analysis of the team of people can be replaced by the model's calculation. According to the authors, the proposed method is also suitable for implementation on a GIS platform.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] M. Lower, A. Lower, “Evaluation of the location of the P&R facilities using fuzzy logic rules.” in: Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, Springer, 2015, pp.255-264
[2] J. Y.T. Wang, H. Yang, R. Lindsey, “Locating and pricing park-and-ride facilities in a linear monocentric city with deterministic mode choice.” in: Transportation Research Part B, 2004 vol. 38 pp. 709–731
[3] B. Farhana, A. T. Murray, “Siting park-and-ride facilities using a multiobjective spatial optimization model.” in: Computers & Operations Research, 2008, vol. 35 pp. 445 – 456 .
[4] J. Holgiun-Veras, W. Yushimito, F. Aros-Vera, J. Reilly, “User rationality and optimal park-and-ride location under potential demand maximization.” in: Transportation Research, 2012, Part B vol. 46 pp. 949–970
[5] W. Malasek, J. Seinke, J. Wagner, “Analiza mozliwosci lokalizacji parkingow P+R w rejonie glownych wlotow drogowych do Warszawy (Analysis of possibilities of location of P&R car parks in the area of the main inlet roads of Warsaw)”, Warsaw Development Planning Office J.S.C., 2009
[6] F. Aros-Vera, V. Marianov, J. E. Mitchell, “P-Hub approach for the optimal park-and-ride facility location”, in European Journal of Operational Research, 2013, vol. 226, pp. 277–285
[7] A. Faghri, A..Lang, K. Hamad, H. Henck, “Integrated Knowledge-Based Geographic Information System for Determining Optimal Location of Park-and-Ride Facilities.” in: Journal of Urban Planning & Development, vol. 128 Issue 1, Mar 2002, p18. 24P,
[8] M. W. Horner, T. H. Grubesic, “A GIS-based planning approach to locating urban rail terminals.” in: Transportation vol. 28, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands, 2001, pp. 55–77.
[9] M. Lower, J. Magott, J. Skorupski, “Air Traffic Incidents Analysis with the Use of Fuzzy Sets.” in: Rutkowski, L., Korytkowski, M., Artificial intelligence and soft computing ICAISC 2013, Zakopane, Poland, Berlin; Heidelberg, Springer, June 2013, pp. 306-317.
[10] M. Lower, “Self-organizing fuzzy logic steering algorithm in complex air condition system.” in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Vol. 5559, 2009, pp. 440-449.
[11] St. Meek, S. Ison, M. Enoch, “Role of Bus-Based Park and Ride in the UK: A Temporal and Evaluative Review” in: Transport Reviews, Vol. 28, No. 6, November 2008, pp. 781–803
[12] G. Mingardo, “Transport and environmental effects of rail-based Park and Ride: evidence from the Netherlands”, in: Journal of Transport Geography 30, 2013, pp. 7–16.
[13] W. Clayton, E. Ben-Elia, G. Parkhurst, M. Ricci, “Where to park? A behavioural comparison of bus Park and Ride and city center car park usage in Bath, UK”, Journal of Transport Geography 36, 2014, pp. 124– 133.
[14] Studium Uwarunkowań i Kierunków Zagospodarowania Przestrzennego Miasta Poznania (Study on Conditions and Directions of Spatial Development of the City of Poznan)
[15] Plan Zrównoważonego Transportu Zbiorowego dla Miasta Poznania na lata 2014-2025 (Sustainable Public Transport Plan for the City of Poznan for the years 2014-2025)
[16] Projekt: Polityka Parkingowa Miasta Poznania. (Project: parking policy of the City of Poznan.)
[17] M. Cox, “Bus Park and Ride: design guidelines” in: ASCE (Ed.), Specialty Conference on Design, Construction, and Rehabilitation of Public Transit Facilities, 1982, Holiday Inn at Embarcadero, San Francisco, pp. 308–314.
[18] D. Bolger, D. Colquhoun, J. Morrall, “Planning and design of Park-and- Ride facilities for the Calgary light rail transit system” in: Transportation Research Record 1361, pp.141–148.
[19] R. J. Spillar, “Park-and-Ride Planning and Design Guidelines” Parsons Brinckerhoff, 1997.
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