In order to efficiently solve the problems created by the deepening energy crisis affecting Europe and the world,
governments cannot neglect the opportunities of using the energy
produced by sun collectors. In many of the EU countries there are sun
collectors producing heat energy, e.g. in 2011 in the area of EU27
(countries which belong to European Union) + Switzerland altogether
37519126 m2 were operated, which are capable of producing 26.3
GWh heat energy. The energy produced by these sun collectors is
utilized at the place of production. In the near future governments
will have to focus more on spreading and using sun collectors.
Among the complex problems of operating sun collectors, this article
deals with determining the optimal tilt angle, directions of sun
collectors. We evaluate the contamination of glass surface of sun
collector to the produced energy. Our theoretically results are confirmed by laboratory measurements. The purpose of our work is to help users and engineers in determination of optimal operation
parameters of sun collectors.
 Duffie, J., Beckman, W. 1980. Solar energy thermal processes.
 Dickinson, W., Cheremisinooff, P. 1980. Solar energy technology
handbook. New York: Marcel Dekker.
 Patkó, I. 2010. Integrating renewable energies into the national energy
system with special regard to the thermal utilization of solar energy.
Conference of the Hungarian Technical Experts; Hungarian Academy of
 Patkó, I. 2009. Renewable energies. University book. Budapest: BMF
 Hand, I.F. 1978. Charts to obtain solar altitudes and azimuths. Heating
and Ventilating, October, pp. 86-88.
 Patkó, I., Szeder, A., Patkó, Cs. 2013. Evaluation the impact tilt angel on
the sun collectors. Energy Procedia, vol. 32, pp. 222-231.
 Ibrahim, R., Andreas, A. 2008. Solar position algorithm for solar
radiation applications. Colorado. Technical Report NREL.
 Calabro, E. 2009. Determining optimum tilt angel of photovoltaic panels
at typical north-tropical latitudes. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable
Energy, vol. 1.
 Chang, T.P. 2008. Study on the optimal tilt angle of solar collector
according to different radiation types. International Journal of Applied
Science and Engineering, vol. 6.pp. 151-161.