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Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29644

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Thermal Analysis of Toroidal Transformers Using Finite Element Method
In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of a power toroidal transformer is proposed for both steady-state or transient conditions. The influence of electric current and ambient temperature on the temperature distribution, has been investigated. To validate the three dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.
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[1] Hernandez, F. de Leon, and P. Gomez, "Design formulas for the leakage inductance of toroidal distribution transformers," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 26, pp. 2197-2204, 2011.
[2] M.T. Askari, M. Z. A. Ab. Kadir, and M. Izadi, "On the trend of improvement of thermal model for calculating the TOT and HST," Przegl─àd Elektrotechniczny, vol. 88, pp. 297-301, 2012.
[3] V. Madžarević, I. Kapetanović, M. Te┼íanović, and M. Kasumović, "Different approach to thermal modeling of transformers - a comparison of methods," Int. J. of Energy and Environment, vol. 5, pp. 610-617, 2011.
[4] M.C. Popescu, N.E. Mastorakis, and L. Popescu-Perescu, "New aspects providing transformer models," Int. J. of Systems Applications, Engineering & Development, vol. 2, pp. 53-63, 2009.
[5] E.I. Amoiralis, M.A. Tsili, and A.G. Kladas, "Transformer design and optimization: a literature survey," IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, vol. 24, pp. 1999-2024, 2009.
[6] A. Folvarcny, and M. Marek, "Experimental analysis of temperature influence on the parameters of the current load type toroidal transformers, compared with conventional types of transformers," in 11th Int. Sci. Conf. on Electric Power Engineering, Brno, 2010, pp. 727- 731.
[7] C.C. Hwang, P.H. Tang, and Y.H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis of highfrequency transformers using finite elements coupled with temperature rise method," IEE Proc. - Electric Power Applications, vol. 152, pp. 832-836, 2005.
[8] A. Lefevre, L. Miegeville, J. Fouladgar, and G. Olivier, "3-D computation of transformers overheating under nonlinear loads," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 41, pp. 1564-1567, 2005.
[9] K. Koizumi, and M. Ishizuka, "Thermal modeling of toroidal inductor," J. Nihon Kikai Gakkai Nenji Taikai Koen Ronbunshu, vol. 6, pp. 299- 300, 2005.
[10] V. Galdi, L. Ippolito, A. Piccolo, and A. Vaccaro, "Parameter identification of power transformers thermal model via genetic algorithms," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 60, pp. 107-113, 2001.
[11] N. Tutkun, "Genetic estimation of iron losses in strip wound toroidal cores under PWM flux conditions," J. of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 300, pp. 506-518, 2006.
[12] O. Nimet, G. Grellet, H. Morel, J.J. Rousseau, and D. Ligot, "Optimal design of a toroidal transformer fed by nonsinusoidal high frequency currents," in 8th Int. Conf. on Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, 2000, pp. 57-62.
[13] C.R. Sullivan, W. Li, P. Prabhakaran, and S. Lu, "Design and fabrication of low-loss toroidal air-core inductors," in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., 2007, pp. 1754-1759.
[14] A.J. Moses, and N. Tutkun, "Investigation of power loss in wound toroidal cores under PWM excitation," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 33, pp. 3763-3765, 1997.
[15] P.J. Turchi, W.A. Reass, C.L. Rousculp, D.M. Oro, F.E. Merrill, J.R. Griego, et al., "Evaluation of conductor stresses in a pulsed high-current toroidal transformer," in 17th IEEE Int. Pulsed Power Conf., Washington DC, 2009, pp. 372-377.
[16] S. Purushothaman, and F. de Leon, "Heat-transfer model for toroidal transformers," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 27, pp. 813-820, 2012.
[17] M.A. Saket, B. Jandaghi, M. Moghaddami, and H. Oraee, "Thermal lumped parameter modeling of a toroidal transformer," in Electric Power Engineering & Control Systems 2011, Lviv, 2011, pp. 1-6.
[18] A.V. Serikov, and T.V. Gerasimenko, "Thermal calculation of transformer-type radiator," Russian Electrical Engineering, vol. 82, pp. 371-376, 2011.
[19] A. FolvarčnÛ, M. Marek, and R. Holčáková , "Magnetic properties of types of core for toroidal transformers made from thin low-loss sheets and thermal influence on resulting transformer idle current," J. of Electrical Engineering, vol. 61, pp. 137-140, 2010.
[20] B. Grzesik, M. Stepien and R. Jez, "Toroidal HTS transformer with cold magnetic core - analysis with FEM software," J. of Physics: Conf. Series: 9th European Conf. on Applied Superconductivity, 2009, pp. 1-8.
[21] B.A. Luciano, J.M. Cavalcante de Albuquerque, W. Benício de Castro, and C.R.M. Afonso, "Nanocrystalline material in toroidal cores for current transformer: analytical study and computational simulations," Materials Research, vol. 8:4, pp. 395-400, 2005.
[22] M. Van der Veen, F. de Leon, B. Gladstone, and V. Tatu, "Measuring acoustic noise emitted by power transformers," in AES 109th Convention, Los Angeles, 2000, pp. 1-19.
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