A Neural Network Classifier for Estimation of the Degree of Infestation by Late Blight on Tomato Leaves
Foliage diseases in plants can cause a reduction in both quality and quantity of agricultural production. Intelligent detection of plant diseases is an essential research topic as it may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of tomato digital images, collected directly from the field. A pair of multilayer perceptron neural network analyzes the digital images, using data from both RGB and HSL color models, and classifies each image pixel. One neural network is responsible for the identification of healthy regions of the tomato leaf, while the other identifies the injured regions. The outputs of both networks are combined to generate the final classification of each pixel from the image and the pixel classes are used to repaint the original tomato images by using a color representation that highlights the injuries on the plant. The new images will have only green, red or black pixels, if they came from healthy or injured portions of the leaf, or from the background of the image, respectively. The system presented an accuracy of 97% in detection and estimation of the level of damage on the tomato leaves caused by late blight.
Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform
Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.
Disaggregating and Forecasting the Total Energy Consumption of a Building: A Case Study of a High Cooling Demand Facility
Energy disaggregation has been focused by many energy companies since energy efficiency can be achieved when the breakdown of energy consumption is known. Companies have been investing in technologies to come up with software and/or hardware solutions that can provide this type of information to the consumer. On the other hand, not all people can afford to have these technologies. Therefore, in this paper, we present a methodology for breaking down the aggregate consumption and identifying the highdemanding end-uses profiles. These energy profiles will be used to build the forecast model for optimal control purpose. A facility with high cooling load is used as an illustrative case study to demonstrate the results of proposed methodology. We apply a high level energy disaggregation through a pattern recognition approach in order to extract the consumption profile of its rooftop packaged units (RTUs) and present a forecast model for the energy consumption.
An Integrated Cognitive Performance Evaluation Framework for Urban Search and Rescue Applications
A variety of techniques and methods are available to evaluate cognitive performance in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) applications. However, traditional cognitive performance evaluation techniques typically incorporate either the conscious or systematic aspect, failing to take into consideration the subconscious or intuitive aspect. This leads to incomplete measures and produces ineffective designs. In order to fill the gaps in past research, this study developed a theoretical framework to facilitate the integration of situation awareness (SA) and intuitive pattern recognition (IPR) to enhance the cognitive performance representation in USAR applications. This framework provides guidance to integrate both SA and IPR in order to evaluate the cognitive performance of the USAR responders. The application of this framework will help improve the system design.
A Neural Approach for the Offline Recognition of the Arabic Handwritten Words of the Algerian Departments
In the context of the handwriting recognition, we
propose an off line system for the recognition of the Arabic
handwritten words of the Algerian departments. The study is based
mainly on the evaluation of neural network performances, trained
with the gradient back propagation algorithm. The used parameters to
form the input vector of the neural network are extracted on the
binary images of the handwritten word by several methods. The
Distribution parameters, the centered moments of the different
projections of the different segments, the centered moments of the
word image coding according to the directions of Freeman, and the
Barr features applied binary image of the word and on its different
segments. The classification is achieved by a multi layers perceptron.
A detailed experiment is carried and satisfactory recognition results
A Pattern Recognition Neural Network Model for Detection and Classification of SQL Injection Attacks
Thousands of organisations store important and
confidential information related to them, their customers, and their
business partners in databases all across the world. The stored data
ranges from less sensitive (e.g. first name, last name, date of birth) to
more sensitive data (e.g. password, pin code, and credit card
information). Losing data, disclosing confidential information or
even changing the value of data are the severe damages that
Structured Query Language injection (SQLi) attack can cause on a
given database. It is a code injection technique where malicious SQL
statements are inserted into a given SQL database by simply using a
web browser. In this paper, we propose an effective pattern
recognition neural network model for detection and classification of
SQLi attacks. The proposed model is built from three main elements
of: a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) generator in order to generate
thousands of malicious and benign URLs, a URL classifier in order
to: 1) classify each generated URL to either a benign URL or a
malicious URL and 2) classify the malicious URLs into different
SQLi attack categories, and a NN model in order to: 1) detect either a
given URL is a malicious URL or a benign URL and 2) identify the
type of SQLi attack for each malicious URL. The model is first
trained and then evaluated by employing thousands of benign and
malicious URLs. The results of the experiments are presented in
order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Statistical Wavelet Features, PCA, and SVM Based Approach for EEG Signals Classification
The study of the electrical signals produced by neural
activities of human brain is called Electroencephalography. In this
paper, we propose an automatic and efficient EEG signal
classification approach. The proposed approach is used to classify the
EEG signal into two classes: epileptic seizure or not. In the proposed
approach, we start with extracting the features by applying Discrete
Wavelet Transform (DWT) in order to decompose the EEG signals
into sub-bands. These features, extracted from details and
approximation coefficients of DWT sub-bands, are used as input to
Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classification is based on
reducing the feature dimension using PCA and deriving the supportvectors
using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental are
performed on real and standard dataset. A very high level of
classification accuracy is obtained in the result of classification.
Improved Dynamic Bayesian Networks Applied to Arabic on Line Characters Recognition
Work is in on line Arabic character recognition and the principal motivation is to study the Arab manuscript with on line technology.
This system is a Markovian system, which one can see as like a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). One of the major interests of these systems resides in the complete models training (topology and parameters) starting from training data.
Our approach is based on the dynamic Bayesian Networks formalism. The DBNs theory is a Bayesians networks generalization to the dynamic processes. Among our objective, amounts finding better parameters, which represent the links (dependences) between dynamic network variables.
In applications in pattern recognition, one will carry out the fixing of the structure, which obliges us to admit some strong assumptions (for example independence between some variables). Our application will relate to the Arabic isolated characters on line recognition using our laboratory database: NOUN. A neural tester proposed for DBN external optimization.
The DBN scores and DBN mixed are respectively 70.24% and 62.50%, which lets predict their further development; other approaches taking account time were considered and implemented until obtaining a significant recognition rate 94.79%.
Pattern Recognition Using Feature Based Die-Map Clusteringin the Semiconductor Manufacturing Process
Depending on the big data analysis becomes important, yield prediction using data from the semiconductor process is essential. In general, yield prediction and analysis of the causes of the failure are closely related. The purpose of this study is to analyze pattern affects the final test results using a die map based clustering. Many researches have been conducted using die data from the semiconductor test process. However, analysis has limitation as the test data is less directly related to the final test results. Therefore, this study proposes a framework for analysis through clustering using more detailed data than existing die data. This study consists of three phases. In the first phase, die map is created through fail bit data in each sub-area of die. In the second phase, clustering using map data is performed. And the third stage is to find patterns that affect final test result. Finally, the proposed three steps are applied to actual industrial data and experimental results showed the potential field application.
A Robust Method for Finding Nearest-Neighbor using Hexagon Cells
In pattern clustering, nearest neighborhood point computation is a challenging issue for many applications in the area of research such as Remote Sensing, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and Statistical Imaging. Nearest neighborhood
computation is an essential computation for providing sufficient classification among the volume of pixels (voxels) in order to localize the active-region-of-interests (AROI). Furthermore, it is needed to compute spatial metric relationships of diverse area of imaging based on the applications of pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for finding the nearest neighbor point, depending on making a virtually grid of a hexagon cells, then locate every point beneath them. An algorithm is suggested for minimizing the computation and increasing the turnaround time of the process. The nearest neighbor query points Φ are fetched by seeking fashion of hexagon holistic. Seeking will be repeated until an AROI Φ is to be expected. If any point Υ is located then searching starts in the nearest hexagons in a circular way. The First hexagon is considered be level 0 (L0) and the surrounded hexagons is level 1 (L1). If Υ is located in L1, then search starts in the next level (L2) to ensure that Υ is the nearest neighbor for Φ. Based on the result and experimental results, we found that the proposed method has an advantage over the traditional methods in terms of minimizing the time complexity required for searching the neighbors, in turn, efficiency of classification will be improved sufficiently.
Vision Based Hand Gesture Recognition Using Generative and Discriminative Stochastic Models
Many approaches to pattern recognition are founded on probability theory, and can be broadly characterized as either generative
or discriminative according to whether or not the distribution of the image features. Generative and discriminative models have
very different characteristics, as well as complementary strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we study these models to recognize the patterns of alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9). To handle isolated pattern, generative model as Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and discriminative models like Conditional Random Field (CRF), Hidden Conditional Random Field (HCRF) and Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Field (LDCRF) with different number of window size are applied on extracted pattern features. The gesture recognition rate is improved initially as the window size increase, but degrades as window size increase further. Experimental results show that the LDCRF is the best in terms of results than CRF, HCRF and HMM at window size equal 4. Additionally, our results show that; an overall recognition rates are 91.52%, 95.28%, 96.94% and 98.05% for CRF,
HCRF, HMM and LDCRF respectively.
Adaptive Dynamic Time Warping for Variable Structure Pattern Recognition
Pattern discovery from time series is of fundamental importance. Particularly, when information about the structure of a pattern is not complete, an algorithm to discover specific patterns or shapes automatically from the time series data is necessary. The dynamic time warping is a technique that allows local flexibility in aligning time series. Because of this, it is widely used in many fields such as science, medicine, industry, finance and others. However, a major problem of the dynamic time warping is that it is not able to work with structural changes of a pattern. This problem arises when the structure is influenced by noise, which is a common thing in practice for almost every application. This paper addresses this problem by means of developing a novel technique called adaptive dynamic time warping.
Control Chart Pattern Recognition Using Wavelet Based Neural Networks
Control chart pattern recognition is one of the most important tools to identify the process state in statistical process control. The abnormal process state could be classified by the recognition of unnatural patterns that arise from assignable causes. In this study, a wavelet based neural network approach is proposed for the recognition of control chart patterns that have various characteristics. The procedure of proposed control chart pattern recognizer comprises three stages. First, multi-resolution wavelet analysis is used to generate time-shape and time-frequency coefficients that have detail information about the patterns. Second, distance based features are extracted by a bi-directional Kohonen network to make reduced and robust information. Third, a back-propagation network classifier is trained by these features. The accuracy of the proposed method is shown by the performance evaluation with numerical results.
Inverse Sets-based Recognition of Video Clips
The paper discusses the mathematics of pattern
indexing and its applications to recognition of visual patterns that are
found in video clips. It is shown that (a) pattern indexes can be
represented by collections of inverted patterns, (b) solutions to
pattern classification problems can be found as intersections and
histograms of inverted patterns and, thus, matching of original
ADABeV: Automatic Detection of Abnormal Behavior in Video-surveillance
Intelligent Video-Surveillance (IVS) systems are
being more and more popular in security applications. The analysis
and recognition of abnormal behaviours in a video sequence has
gradually drawn the attention in the field of IVS, since it allows
filtering out a large number of useless information, which guarantees
the high efficiency in the security protection, and save a lot of human
and material resources. We present in this paper ADABeV, an
intelligent video-surveillance framework for event recognition in
crowded scene to detect the abnormal human behaviour. This
framework is attended to be able to achieve real-time alarming,
reducing the lags in traditional monitoring systems. This architecture
proposal addresses four main challenges: behaviour understanding in
crowded scenes, hard lighting conditions, multiple input kinds of
sensors and contextual-based adaptability to recognize the active
context of the scene.
Fingerprint Identification using Discretization Technique
Fingerprint based identification system; one of a well
known biometric system in the area of pattern recognition and has
always been under study through its important role in forensic
science that could help government criminal justice community. In
this paper, we proposed an identification framework of individuals by
means of fingerprint. Different from the most conventional
fingerprint identification frameworks the extracted Geometrical
element features (GEFs) will go through a Discretization process.
The intention of Discretization in this study is to attain individual
unique features that could reflect the individual varianceness in order
to discriminate one person from another. Previously, Discretization
has been shown a particularly efficient identification on English
handwriting with accuracy of 99.9% and on discrimination of twins-
handwriting with accuracy of 98%. Due to its high discriminative
power, this method is adopted into this framework as an independent
based method to seek for the accuracy of fingerprint identification.
Finally the experimental result shows that the accuracy rate of
identification of the proposed system using Discretization is 100%
for FVC2000, 93% for FVC2002 and 89.7% for FVC2004 which is
much better than the conventional or the existing fingerprint
identification system (72% for FVC2000, 26% for FVC2002 and
32.8% for FVC2004). The result indicates that Discretization
approach manages to boost up the classification effectively, and
therefore prove to be suitable for other biometric features besides
handwriting and fingerprint.
Offline Handwritten Signature Recognition
Biometrics, which refers to identifying an individual
based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics, has
the capability to reliably distinguish between an authorized person
and an imposter. Signature verification systems can be categorized as
offline (static) and online (dynamic). This paper presents a neural
network based recognition of offline handwritten signatures system
that is trained with low-resolution scanned signature images.
Dynamic Threshold Adjustment Approach For Neural Networks
The use of neural networks for recognition application is generally constrained by their inherent parameters inflexibility after the training phase. This means no adaptation is accommodated for input variations that have any influence on the network parameters. Attempts were made in this work to design a neural network that includes an additional mechanism that adjusts the threshold values according to the input pattern variations. The new approach is based on splitting the whole network into two subnets; main traditional net and a supportive net. The first deals with the required output of trained patterns with predefined settings, while the second tolerates output generation dynamically with tuning capability for any newly applied input. This tuning comes in the form of an adjustment to the threshold values. Two levels of supportive net were studied; one implements an extended additional layer with adjustable neuronal threshold setting mechanism, while the second implements an auxiliary net with traditional architecture performs dynamic adjustment to the threshold value of the main net that is constructed in dual-layer architecture. Experiment results and analysis of the proposed designs have given quite satisfactory conducts. The supportive layer approach achieved over 90% recognition rate, while the multiple network technique shows more effective and acceptable level of recognition. However, this is achieved at the price of network complexity and computation time. Recognition generalization may be also improved by accommodating capabilities involving all the innate structures in conjugation with Intelligence abilities with the needs of further advanced learning phases.
Swarmed Discriminant Analysis for Multifunction Prosthesis Control
One of the approaches enabling people with amputated
limbs to establish some sort of interface with the real world includes
the utilization of the myoelectric signal (MES) from the remaining
muscles of those limbs. The MES can be used as a control input to a
multifunction prosthetic device. In this control scheme, known as the
myoelectric control, a pattern recognition approach is usually utilized
to discriminate between the MES signals that belong to different
classes of the forearm movements. Since the MES is recorded using
multiple channels, the feature vector size can become very large. In
order to reduce the computational cost and enhance the generalization
capability of the classifier, a dimensionality reduction method is
needed to identify an informative yet moderate size feature set. This
paper proposes a new fuzzy version of the well known Fisher-s
Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) feature projection technique.
Furthermore, based on the fact that certain muscles might contribute
more to the discrimination process, a novel feature weighting scheme
is also presented by employing Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
for estimating the weight of each feature. The new method, called
PSOFLDA, is tested on real MES datasets and compared with other
techniques to prove its superiority.
A Optimal Subclass Detection Method for Credit Scoring
In this paper a non-parametric statistical pattern recognition algorithm for the problem of credit scoring will be presented. The proposed algorithm is based on a clustering k- means algorithm and allows for the determination of subclasses of homogenous elements in the data. The algorithm will be tested on two benchmark datasets and its performance compared with other well known pattern recognition algorithm for credit scoring.
Pattern Recognition as an Internalized Motor Programme
A new conceptual architecture for low-level neural
pattern recognition is presented. The key ideas are that the brain
implements support vector machines and that support vectors are
represented as memory patterns in competitive queuing memories. A
binary classifier is built from two competitive queuing memories
holding positive and negative valence training examples respectively.
The support vector machine classification function is calculated in
synchronized evaluation cycles. The kernel is computed by bisymmetric
feed-forward networks feed by sensory input and by
competitive queuing memories traversing the complete sequence of
support vectors. Temporary summation generates the output
classification. It is speculated that perception apparatus in the brain
reuses structures that have evolved for enabling fluent execution of
prepared action sequences so that pattern recognition is built on
internalized motor programmes.
A New Biologically Inspired Pattern Recognition Spproach for Face Recognition
This paper reports a new pattern recognition approach for face recognition. The biological model of light receptors - cones and rods in human eyes and the way they are associated with pattern vision in human vision forms the basis of this approach. The functional model is simulated using CWD and WPD. The paper also discusses the experiments performed for face recognition using the features extracted from images in the AT & T face database. Artificial Neural Network and k- Nearest Neighbour classifier algorithms are employed for the recognition purpose. A feature vector is formed for each of the face images in the database and recognition accuracies are computed and compared using the classifiers. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms traditional way of feature extraction methods prevailing for pattern recognition in terms of recognition accuracy for face images with pose and illumination variations.
Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge by Using Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP
This paper presents the effectiveness of artificial
intelligent technique to apply for pattern recognition and
classification of Partial Discharge (PD). Characteristics of PD signal
for pattern recognition and classification are computed from the
relation of the voltage phase angle, the discharge magnitude and the
repeated existing of partial discharges by using statistical and fractal
methods. The simplified fuzzy ARTMAP (SFAM) is used for pattern
recognition and classification as artificial intelligent technique. PDs
quantities, 13 parameters from statistical method and fractal method
results, are inputted to Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP to train system
for pattern recognition and classification. The results confirm the
effectiveness of purpose technique.
Development of a Pipeline Monitoring System by Bio-mimetic Robots
To explore pipelines is one of various bio-mimetic
robot applications. The robot may work in common buildings such as
between ceilings and ducts, in addition to complicated and massive
pipeline systems of large industrial plants. The bio-mimetic robot finds
any troubled area or malfunction and then reports its data. Importantly,
it can not only prepare for but also react to any abnormal routes in the
pipeline. The pipeline monitoring tasks require special types of mobile
robots. For an effective movement along a pipeline, the movement of
the robot will be similar to that of insects or crawling animals. During
its movement along the pipelines, a pipeline monitoring robot has an
important task of finding the shapes of the approaching path on the
pipes. In this paper we propose an effective solution to the pipeline
pattern recognition, based on the fuzzy classification rules for the
measured IR distance data.
MTSSM - A Framework for Multi-Track Segmentation of Symbolic Music
Music segmentation is a key issue in music information
retrieval (MIR) as it provides an insight into the
internal structure of a composition. Structural information about
a composition can improve several tasks related to MIR such
as searching and browsing large music collections, visualizing
musical structure, lyric alignment, and music summarization.
The authors of this paper present the MTSSM framework, a twolayer
framework for the multi-track segmentation of symbolic
music. The strength of this framework lies in the combination of
existing methods for local track segmentation and the application
of global structure information spanning via multiple tracks.
The first layer of the MTSSM uses various string matching
techniques to detect the best candidate segmentations for each
track of a multi-track composition independently. The second
layer combines all single track results and determines the best
segmentation for each track in respect to the global structure of
Hand Gesture Recognition Based on Combined Features Extraction
Hand gesture is an active area of research in the vision
community, mainly for the purpose of sign language recognition and
Human Computer Interaction. In this paper, we propose a system to
recognize alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9) in real-time
from stereo color image sequences using Hidden Markov Models
(HMMs). Our system is based on three main stages; automatic segmentation
and preprocessing of the hand regions, feature extraction
and classification. In automatic segmentation and preprocessing stage,
color and 3D depth map are used to detect hands where the hand
trajectory will take place in further step using Mean-shift algorithm
and Kalman filter. In the feature extraction stage, 3D combined features
of location, orientation and velocity with respected to Cartesian
systems are used. And then, k-means clustering is employed for
HMMs codeword. The final stage so-called classification, Baum-
Welch algorithm is used to do a full train for HMMs parameters.
The gesture of alphabets and numbers is recognized using Left-Right
Banded model in conjunction with Viterbi algorithm. Experimental
results demonstrate that, our system can successfully recognize hand
gestures with 98.33% recognition rate.
Reconstruction of the Most Energetic Modes in a Fully Developed Turbulent Channel Flow with Density Variation
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to reconstruct spatio-temporal data of a fully developed turbulent channel flow with density variation at Reynolds number of 150, based on the friction velocity and the channel half-width, and Prandtl number of 0.71. To apply POD to the fully developed turbulent channel flow with density variation, the flow field (velocities, density, and temperature) is scaled by the corresponding root mean square values (rms) so that the flow field becomes dimensionless. A five-vector POD problem is solved numerically. The reconstructed second-order moments of velocity, temperature, and density from POD eigenfunctions compare favorably to the original Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data.
Analysis of Feature Space for a 2d/3d Vision based Emotion Recognition Method
In modern human computer interaction systems
(HCI), emotion recognition is becoming an imperative characteristic.
The quest for effective and reliable emotion recognition in HCI has
resulted in a need for better face detection, feature extraction and
classification. In this paper we present results of feature space analysis
after briefly explaining our fully automatic vision based emotion
recognition method. We demonstrate the compactness of the feature
space and show how the 2d/3d based method achieves superior features
for the purpose of emotion classification. Also it is exposed that
through feature normalization a widely person independent feature
space is created. As a consequence, the classifier architecture has
only a minor influence on the classification result. This is particularly
elucidated with the help of confusion matrices. For this purpose
advanced classification algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines
and Artificial Neural Networks are employed, as well as the simple k-
Nearest Neighbor classifier.
Biologically Inspired Artificial Neural Cortex Architecture and its Formalism
The paper attempts to elucidate the columnar structure
of the cortex by answering the following questions. (1) Why the
cortical neurons with similar interests tend to be vertically arrayed
forming what is known as cortical columns? (2) How to describe the
cortex as a whole in concise mathematical terms? (3) How to design
efficient digital models of the cortex?
Posture Recognition using Combined Statistical and Geometrical Feature Vectors based on SVM
It is hard to percept the interaction process with machines when visual information is not available. In this paper, we have addressed this issue to provide interaction through visual techniques. Posture recognition is done for American Sign Language to recognize static alphabets and numbers. 3D information is exploited to obtain segmentation of hands and face using normal Gaussian distribution and depth information. Features for posture recognition are computed using statistical and geometrical properties which are translation, rotation and scale invariant. Hu-Moment as statistical features and; circularity and rectangularity as geometrical features are incorporated to build the feature vectors. These feature vectors are used to train SVM for classification that recognizes static alphabets and numbers. For the alphabets, curvature analysis is carried out to reduce the misclassifications. The experimental results show that proposed system recognizes posture symbols by achieving recognition rate of 98.65% and 98.6% for ASL alphabets and numbers respectively.