Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation
This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.
EEG Signal Processing Methods to Differentiate Mental States
EEG is a very complex signal with noises and other bio-potential interferences. EOG is the most distinct interfering signal when EEG signals are measured and analyzed. It is very important how to process raw EEG signals in order to obtain useful information. In this study, the EEG signal processing techniques such as EOG filtering and outlier removal were examined to minimize unwanted EOG signals and other noises. The two different mental states of resting and focusing were examined through EEG analysis. A focused state was induced by letting subjects to watch a red dot on the white screen. EEG data for 32 healthy subjects were measured. EEG data after 60-Hz notch filtering were processed by a commercially available EOG filtering and our presented algorithm based on the removal of outliers. The ratio of beta wave to theta wave was used as a parameter for determining the degree of focusing. The results show that our algorithm was more appropriate than the existing EOG filtering.
An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals
A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.
Comparing Emotion Recognition from Voice and Facial Data Using Time Invariant Features
The problem of emotion recognition is a challenging problem. It is still an open problem from the aspect of both intelligent systems and psychology. In this paper, both voice features and facial features are used for building an emotion recognition system. A Support Vector Machine classifiers are built by using raw data from video recordings. In this paper, the results obtained for the emotion recognition are given, and a discussion about the validity and the expressiveness of different emotions is presented. A comparison between the classifiers build from facial data only, voice data only and from the combination of both data is made here. The need for a better combination of the information from facial expression and voice data is argued.
Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense
environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop
communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload
that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run
out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical
individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new
Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life
and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all
nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a
novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation
of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy.
Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life
and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a
counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst
nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet
extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative
approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the
Localization of Near Field Radio Controlled Unintended Emitting Sources
Locating Radio Controlled (RC) devices using their
unintended emissions has a great interest considering security
concerns. Weak nature of these emissions requires near field
localization approach since it is hard to detect these signals in far
field region of array. Instead of only angle estimation, near field
localization also requires range estimation of the source which makes
this method more complicated than far field models. Challenges of
locating such devices in a near field region and real time environment
are analyzed in this paper. An ESPRIT like near field localization
scheme is utilized for both angle and range estimation. 1-D search
with symmetric subarrays is provided. Two 7 element uniform linear
antenna arrays (ULA) are employed for locating RC source.
Experiment results of location estimation for one unintended emitting
walkie-talkie for different positions are given.
H.263 Based Video Transceiver for Wireless Camera System
In this paper, a design of H.263 based wireless video
transceiver is presented for wireless camera system. It uses standard
WIFI transceiver and the covering area is up to 100m. Furthermore the
standard H.263 video encoding technique is used for video
compression since wireless video transmitter is unable to transmit high
capacity raw data in real time and the implemented system is capable
of streaming at speed of less than 1Mbps using NTSC 720x480 video.
Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling
The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The on line monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear on line. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc…. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.
A Low Cost and High Quality Duty-Cycle Modulation Scheme and Applications
In this paper, a low cost duty-cycle modulation scheme is studied in depth and compared to the standard pulse width modulation technique. Using a mix of analytical reasoning and electronics simulation tools, it is shown that under the same operating conditions, most characteristics of the proposed duty-cycle modulation scheme are better than those provided by a standard pulse width modulation technique. The simulation results obtained when testing both modulation control policies on prototyping systems, indicate that the proposed duty-cycle modulation approach, appears to be a high quality control policy in a wide variety of application areas, including A/D and D/A conversion, signal transmission and switching control in power electronics.
Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar has
received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many
advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target
detection,resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In
this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO
uniformly-spaced linear array (ULA) antennas. The performance is
investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size,
pseudo random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and
signal to noise ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a
traditional array antenna.
Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings
In this work, a method of time delay estimation for
dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under
reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on
cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving
strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and
asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based
on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a
delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties
are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of
applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a
comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are
Detection of Clipped Fragments in Speech Signals
In this paper a novel method for the detection of
clipping in speech signals is described. It is shown that the new
method has better performance than known clipping detection
methods, is easy to implement, and is robust to changes in signal
amplitude, size of data, etc. Statistical simulation results are
Design of a Novel Inclination Sensor Utilizing Grayscale Image
Several research works have been done in recent times utilizing grayscale image for the measurement of many physical phenomena. In this present paper, we have designed an embedded based inclination sensor utilizing the grayscale image with a resolution of 0.3º. The sensor module consists of a circular shaped metal disc, laminated with grayscale image and an optical transreceiver. The sensor principle is based on temporal changes in light intensity by the movement of grayscale image with the inclination of the target surface and the variation of light intensity has been detected in terms of voltage by the signal processing circuit (SPC).The output of SPC is fed to a microcontroller program to display the inclination angel digitally. The experimental results are shown a satisfactory performance of the sensor in a small inclination measuring range of -40º to + 40º with a sensitivity of 62 mV/°.
Microcontroller Based EOG Guided Wheelchair
A new cost effective, eye controlled method was introduced to guide and control a wheel chair for disable people, based on Electrooculography (EOG). The guidance and control is effected by eye ball movements within the socket. The system consists of a standard electric wheelchair with an on-board microcontroller system attached. EOG is a new technology to sense the eye signals for eye movements and these signals are captured using electrodes, signal processed such as amplification, noise filtering, and then given to microcontroller which drives the motors attached with wheel chair for propulsion. This technique could be very useful in applications such as mobility for handicapped and paralyzed persons.
A Resistorless High Input Impedance First Order All-Pass Filter Using CCCIIs
A new first order all-pass filter topology realized using current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs) is introduced in this paper. Offered benefits are the high-impedance of the input node, the absence of external resistors because of the usage of CCCIIs with positive and negative intrinsic resistances, the presence of only grounded capacitors, and the capability of electronic adjustment of the phase shift through a single bias current. The correct operation of the introduced topology is conformed through simulation results, while its behavior is evaluated through comparison results.
Sensitivity Analysis for Direction of Arrival Estimation Using Capon and Music Algorithms in Mobile Radio Environment
An array antenna system with innovative signal
processing can improve the resolution of a source direction of arrival
(DoA) estimation. High resolution techniques take the advantage of
array antenna structures to better process the incoming waves. They
also have the capability to identify the direction of multiple targets.
This paper investigates performance of the DOA estimation
algorithm namely; Capon and MUSIC on the uniform linear array
(ULA). The simulation results show that in Capon and MUSIC
algorithm the resolution of the DOA techniques improves as number
of snapshots, number of array elements, signal-to-noise ratio and
separation angle between the two sources θ increases.
Detecting Abnormal ECG Signals Utilising Wavelet Transform and Standard Deviation
ECG contains very important clinical information about the cardiac activities of the heart. Often the ECG signal needs to be captured for a long period of time in order to identify abnormalities in certain situations. Such signal apart of a large volume often is characterised by low quality due to the noise and other influences. In order to extract features in the ECG signal with time-varying characteristics at first need to be preprocessed with the best parameters. Also, it is useful to identify specific parts of the long lasting signal which have certain abnormalities and to direct the practitioner to those parts of the signal. In this work we present a method based on wavelet transform, standard deviation and variable threshold which achieves 100% accuracy in identifying the ECG signal peaks and heartbeat as well as identifying the standard deviation, providing a quick reference to abnormalities.
Subjective Assessment about Super Resolution Image Resolution
Super resolution (SR) technologies are now being
applied to video to improve resolution. Some TV sets are now
equipped with SR functions. However, it is not known if super
resolution image reconstruction (SRR) for TV really works or not.
Super resolution with non-linear signal processing (SRNL) has
recently been proposed. SRR and SRNL are the only methods for
processing video signals in real time. The results from subjective
assessments of SSR and SRNL are described in this paper. SRR video
was produced in simulations with quarter precision motion vectors and
100 iterations. These are ideal conditions for SRR. We found that the
image quality of SRNL is better than that of SRR even though SRR
was processed under ideal conditions.
Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Based Signal Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach
There have been different approaches to compute the
analytic instantaneous frequency with a variety of background reasoning
and applicability in practice, as well as restrictions. This paper presents an adaptive Fourier decomposition and (α-counting) based
instantaneous frequency computation approach. The adaptive Fourier
decomposition is a recently proposed new signal decomposition
approach. The instantaneous frequency can be computed through the so called mono-components decomposed by it. Due to the fast energy
convergency, the highest frequency of the signal will be discarded by the adaptive Fourier decomposition, which represents the noise of
the signal in most of the situation. A new instantaneous frequency
definition for a large class of so-called simple waves is also proposed
in this paper. Simple wave contains a wide range of signals for which
the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense.
The α-counting instantaneous frequency can be used to compute the highest frequency for a signal. Combination of these two approaches one can obtain the IFs of the whole signal. An experiment is demonstrated the computation procedure with promising results.
Development of a Thrust Measurement System
KSLV-I(Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I) is designed as
a launch vehicle to enter a 100 kg-class satellite to the LEO(Low Earth
Orbit). Attitude angles of the upper-stage, including roll, pitch and
yaw are controlled by the cold gas thruster system using nitrogen gas.
The cold gas thruster is an actuator in the RCS(Reaction Control
System). To design an attitude controller for the upper-stage, thrust
measurement in vacuum condition is required. In this paper, the new
thrust measurement system and calibration mechanism are developed
and measurement errors and signal processing method are presented.
The Autoregresive Analysis for Wind Turbine Signal Postprocessing
Today modern simulations solutions in the wind turbine industry have achieved a high degree of complexity and detail in result. Limitations exist when it is time to validate model results against measurements. Regarding Model validation it is of special interest to identify mode frequencies and to differentiate them from the different excitations. A wind turbine is a complex device and measurements regarding any part of the assembly show a lot of noise. Input excitations are difficult or even impossible to measure due to the stochastic nature of the environment. Traditional techniques for frequency analysis or features extraction are widely used to analyze wind turbine sensor signals, but have several limitations specially attending to non stationary signals (Events). A new technique based on autoregresive analysis techniques is introduced here for a specific application, a comparison and examples related to different events in the wind turbine operations are presented.
Odor Discrimination Using Neural Decoding of Olfactory Bulbs in Rats
This paper presents a novel method for inferring the
odor based on neural activities observed from rats- main olfactory
bulbs. Multi-channel extra-cellular single unit recordings were done
by micro-wire electrodes (tungsten, 50μm, 32 channels) implanted in
the mitral/tufted cell layers of the main olfactory bulb of anesthetized
rats to obtain neural responses to various odors. Neural response
as a key feature was measured by substraction of neural firing rate
before stimulus from after. For odor inference, we have developed a
decoding method based on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation.
The results have shown that the average decoding accuracy is about
100.0%, 96.0%, 84.0%, and 100.0% with four rats, respectively. This
work has profound implications for a novel brain-machine interface
system for odor inference.
Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems
In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.
Oil Debris Signal Detection Based on Integral Transform and Empirical Mode Decomposition
Oil debris signal generated from the inductive oil
debris monitor (ODM) is useful information for machine condition
monitoring but is often spoiled by background noise. To improve the
reliability in machine condition monitoring, the high-fidelity signal
has to be recovered from the noisy raw data. Considering that the noise
components with large amplitude often have higher frequency than
that of the oil debris signal, the integral transform is proposed to
enhance the detectability of the oil debris signal. To cancel out the
baseline wander resulting from the integral transform, the empirical
mode decomposition (EMD) method is employed to identify the trend
components. An optimal reconstruction strategy including both
de-trending and de-noising is presented to detect the oil debris signal
with less distortion. The proposed approach is applied to detect the oil
debris signal in the raw data collected from an experimental setup. The
result demonstrates that this approach is able to detect the weak oil
debris signal with acceptable distortion from noisy raw data.
Array Signal Processing: DOA Estimation for Missing Sensors
Array signal processing involves signal enumeration and source localization. Array signal processing is centered on the ability to fuse temporal and spatial information captured via sampling signals emitted from a number of sources at the sensors of an array in order to carry out a specific estimation task: source characteristics (mainly localization of the sources) and/or array characteristics (mainly array geometry) estimation. Array signal processing is a part of signal processing that uses sensors organized in patterns or arrays, to detect signals and to determine information about them. Beamforming is a general signal processing technique used to control the directionality of the reception or transmission of a signal. Using Beamforming we can direct the majority of signal energy we receive from a group of array. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) is a highly popular eigenstructure-based estimation method of direction of arrival (DOA) with high resolution. This Paper enumerates the effect of missing sensors in DOA estimation. The accuracy of the MUSIC-based DOA estimation is degraded significantly both by the effects of the missing sensors among the receiving array elements and the unequal channel gain and phase errors of the receiver.
Investigating Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals at Lower Frequencies
Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by
the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination
travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as
multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has
progressed well over the years with the research taking different
angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on
ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on
ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation
schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal
processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software defined
radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out
certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating
for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation
process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature
baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are
carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at
lower QBB frequencies than at RF.
Efficient Hardware Realization of Truncated Multipliers using FPGA
Truncated multiplier is a good candidate for digital
signal processing (DSP) applications including finite impulse
response (FIR) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). Through
truncated multiplier a significant reduction in Field Programmable
Gate Array (FPGA) resources can be achieved. This paper presents
for the first time a comparison of resource utilization of Spartan-3AN
and Virtex-5 implementation of standard and truncated multipliers
using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description
Language (VHDL). The Virtex-5 FPGA shows significant
improvement as compared to Spartan-3AN FPGA device. The
Virtex-5 FPGA device shows better performance with a percentage
ratio of number of occupied slices for standard to truncated
multipliers is increased from 40% to 73.86% as compared to Spartan-
3AN is decreased from 68.75% to 58.78%. Results show that the
anomaly in Spartan-3AN FPGA device average connection and
maximum pin delay have been efficiently reduced in Virtex-5 FPGA
Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signal for the Detection of Defective Manufactures in Press Process
Small cracks or chips of a product appear very
frequently in the course of continuous production of an automatic
press process system. These phenomena become the cause of not only
defective product but also damage of a press mold. In order to solve
this problem AE system was introduced. AE system was expected to
be very effective to real time detection of the defective product and to
prevention of the damage of the press molds.
In this study, for pick and analysis of AE signals generated from the
press process, AE sensors/pre-amplifier/analysis and processing board
were used as frequently found in the other similar cases. For analysis
and processing the AE signals picked in real time from the good or bad
products, specialized software called cdm8 was used. As a result of
this work it was conformed that intensity and shape of the various AE
signals differ depending on the weight and thickness of metal sheet
and process type.
Low Voltage Squarer Using Floating Gate MOSFETs
A new low-voltage floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS)
based squarer using square law characteristic of the FGMOS is
proposed in this paper. The major advantages of the squarer are simplicity,
rail-to-rail input dynamic range, low total harmonic distortion,
and low power consumption. The proposed circuit is biased without
body effect. The circuit is designed and simulated using SPICE in
0.25μm CMOS technology. The squarer is operated at the supply
voltages of ±0.75V . The total harmonic distortion (THD) for the
input signal 0.75Vpp at 25 KHz, and maximum power consumption
were found to be less than 1% and 319μW respectively.
A Real-Time Signal Processing Technique for MIDI Generation
This paper presents a new hardware interface using a
microcontroller which processes audio music signals to standard
MIDI data. A technique for processing music signals by extracting
note parameters from music signals is described. An algorithm to
convert the voice samples for real-time processing without complex
calculations is proposed. A high frequency microcontroller as the
main processor is deployed to execute the outlined algorithm. The
MIDI data generated is transmitted using the EIA-232 protocol. The
analyses of data generated show the feasibility of using
microcontrollers for real-time MIDI generation hardware interface.