A Corporate Social Responsibility Project to Improve the Democratization of Scientific Education in Brazil
Nuclear technology is part of our everyday life and its beneficial applications help to improve the quality of our lives. Nevertheless, in Brazil, most often the media and social networks tend to associate radiation to nuclear weapons and major accidents, and there is still great misunderstanding about the peaceful applications of nuclear science. The Educational Portal Radioatividades (Radioactivities) is a corporate social responsibility initiative that takes advantage of the growing impact of Internet to offer high quality scientific information for teachers and students throughout Brazil. This web-based initiative focusses on the positive applications of nuclear technology, presenting the several contributions of ionizing radiation in different contexts, such as nuclear medicine, agriculture techniques, food safety and electric power generation, proving nuclear technology as part of modern life and a must to improve the quality of our lifestyle. This educational project aims to contribute for democratization of scientific education and social inclusion, approaching society to scientific knowledge, promoting critical thinking and inspiring further reflections. The website offers a wide variety of ludic activities such as curiosities, interactive exercises and short courses. Moreover, teachers are offered free web-based material with full instructions to be developed in class. Since year 2013, the project has been developed and improved according to a comprehensive study about the realistic scenario of ICTs infrastructure in Brazilian schools and in full compliance with the best e-learning national and international recommendations.
The Nuclear Energy Museum in Brazil: Creative Solutions to Transform Science Education into Meaningful Learning
Nuclear technology is a controversial issue among a great share of the Brazilian population. Misinformation and common wrong beliefs confuse public’s perceptions and the scientific community is expected to offer a wider perspective on the benefits and risks resulting from ionizing radiation in everyday life. Attentive to the need of new approaches between science and society, the Nuclear Energy Museum, in northeast Brazil, is an initiative created to communicate the growing impact of the beneficial applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, agriculture and electric power generation. Providing accessible scientific information, the museum offers a rich learning environment, making use of different educational strategies, such as films, interactive panels and multimedia learning tools, which not only increase the enjoyment of visitors, but also maximize their learning potential. Developed according to modern active learning instructional strategies, multimedia materials are designed to present the increasingly role of nuclear science in modern life, transforming science education into a meaningful learning experience. In year 2016, nine different interactive computer-based activities were developed, presenting curiosities about ionizing radiation in different landmarks around the world, such as radiocarbon dating works in Egypt, nuclear power generation in France and X-radiography of famous paintings in Italy. Feedback surveys have reported a high level of visitors’ satisfaction, proving the high quality experience in learning nuclear science at the museum. The Nuclear Energy Museum is the first and, up to the present time, the only permanent museum in Brazil devoted entirely to nuclear science.
Web-Based Tools to Increase Public Understanding of Nuclear Technology and Food Irradiation
Food irradiation is a processing and preservation technique to eliminate insects and parasites and reduce disease-causing microorganisms. Moreover, the process helps to inhibit sprouting and delay ripening, extending fresh fruits and vegetables shelf-life. Nevertheless, most Brazilian consumers seem to misunderstand the difference between irradiated food and radioactive food and the general public has major concerns about the negative health effects and environmental contamination. Society´s judgment and decision making are directly linked to perceived benefits and risks. The web-based project entitled ‘Scientific information about food irradiation: Internet as a tool to approach science and society’ was created by the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), in order to offer an interdisciplinary approach to science education, integrating economic, ethical, social and political aspects of food irradiation. This project takes into account that, misinformation and unfounded preconceived ideas impact heavily on the acceptance of irradiated food and purchase intention by the Brazilian consumer. Taking advantage of the potential value of the Internet to enhance communication and education among general public, a research study was carried out regarding the possibilities and trends of Information and Communication Technologies among the Brazilian population. The content includes concepts, definitions and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about processes, safety, advantages, limitations and the possibilities of food irradiation, including health issues, as well as its impacts on the environment. The project counts on eight self-instructional interactive web courses, situating scientific content in relevant social contexts in order to encourage self-learning and further reflections. Communication is a must to improve public understanding of science. The use of information technology for quality scientific divulgation shall contribute greatly to provide information throughout the country, spreading information to as many people as possible, minimizing geographic distances and stimulating communication and development.
Analyzing the Plausible Alternatives in Contracting the Societal Fissure Caused by Digital Divide in Sri Lanka
'Digital Divide' is a concept that has existed in this paradigm ever since the discovery of the first-generation technologies. Before the turn of the century, it was basically used to describe the gap between those with telephone communication access and those without it. At present, it is plainly descriptive in itself to illustrate the cavity among those with Internet access and those without. Though the concept of digital divide has been merely lying in sight for as long as time itself, the friction it caused has not yet been fully realized to solve major crisis situations. Unlike well-developed countries, Sri Lanka is still in the verge of moving farther away from a developing country in the race towards reaching a developed state. Access to technological resources varies from region to region, even within the island itself, with one region having a considerable percentage of its community exposed to the Internet and its related technologies, and the other unaware of such. Thus, this paper intends to analyze the roots for the still-extant gap instigated based on the concept of ‘Digital Divide’ and explores the plausible potentials that could be brought about by narrowing this prevailing percentage among the population, specifically entrenching the advantages reaped towards an economic augmentation and culture or lifestyle revolution on the path towards development.
Importance of E-Participation by U-Society in the Development of the U-City
This paper is to reveal developments in the areas of urban technology in Malaysia. Developments occur intend to add value intelligent city development to the ubiquitous city (U-city) or smart city. The phenomenon of change is called the development of post intelligent cities. U-City development discourse is seen from the perspective of the philosophy of the virtuous city organized by al-Farabi. The prosperity and perfection of a city is mainly caused by human personality factors, as well as its relationship with material and technological aspects of the city. The question is, to what extent to which human factors are taken into account in the concept of U-City as an added value to the intelligent city concept to realize the prosperity and perfection of the city? Previously, the intelligent city concept was developed based on global change and ICT movement, while the U-city added value to the development of intelligent cities and focused more on the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Value added is defined as the use of fiber optic technology that is wired to the use of wireless technology, such as wireless broadband. In this discourse, the debate on the concept of U-City is to the symbiosis between the U-City and the importance of local human e-participation (U-Society) for prosperity. In the context of virtuous city philosophy, it supports the thought of symbiosis so the concept of U-City can achieve sustainability, prosperity and perfection of the city.
Evaluation of Fluoride Contents of Kirkuk City's Drinking Water and Its Source: Lesser Zab River and Its Effect on Human Health
In this study, forty samples had been collected from water of Lesser Zab River and drinking water to determine fluoride concentration and show the impact of fluoride on general health of society of Kirkuk city. Estimation of fluoride concentration and determination of its proportion in water samples were performed attentively using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The fluoride concentrations in the Lesser Zab River samples were between 0.0265 ppm and 0.0863 ppm with an average of 0.0451 ppm, whereas the average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.102 ppm and ranged from 0.010 to 0.289 ppm. A comparison between results obtained with World Health Organization (WHO) show a low concentration of fluoride in the samples of the study. Thus, for health concerns we should increase the concentration of this ion in water of Kirkuk city at least to about (1.0 ppm) and this will take place after fluorination process.
Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society
In a world characterized by greed and the lust for
power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing
new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of
human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media
and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his
getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly
looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its
causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its
consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform
will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to
various jurisdictions around the world.
Human Trafficking: The Kosovar Perspective of Fighting the Phenomena through Police and Civil Society Cooperation
The rationale behind this study is considering
combating and preventing the phenomenon of trafficking in human
beings from a multidisciplinary perspective that involves many layers
of the society.
Trafficking in human beings is an abhorrent phenomenon highly
affecting negatively the victims and their families in both human and
material aspect, sometimes causing irreversible damages. The longer
term effects of this phenomenon, in countries with a weak economic
development and extremely young and dynamic population, such as
Kosovo, without proper measures to prevented and control can cause
tremendous damages in the society. Given the fact that a complete
eradication of this phenomenon is almost impossible, efforts should
be concentrated at least on the prevention and controlling aspects.
Treating trafficking in human beings based on traditional police
tactics, methods and proceedings cannot bring satisfactory results.
There is no doubt that a multi-disciplinary approach is an
irreplaceable requirement, in other words, a combination of authentic
and functional proactive and reactive methods, techniques and tactics.
Obviously, police must exercise its role in preventing and combating
trafficking in human beings, a role sanctioned by the law, however,
police role and contribution cannot by any means considered
complete if all segments of the society are not included in these
efforts. Naturally, civil society should have an important share in
these collaborative and interactive efforts especially in preventive
activities such as: awareness on trafficking risks and damages,
proactive engagement in drafting appropriate legislation and
strategies, law enforcement monitoring and direct or indirect
involvement in protective and supporting activities which benefit the
victims of trafficking etc.
The Effects of Logistical Centers Realization on Society and Economy
Presently, it is necessary to ensure the sustainable
development of passenger and freight transport. Increasing
performance of road freight has had a negative impact to environment
and society. It is therefore necessary to increase the competitiveness
of intermodal transport, which is more environmentally friendly. The
study describes the effectiveness of logistical centers realization for
companies and society and research how the partial internalization of
external costs reflected in the efficient use of these centers and
increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport to road freight.
In our research, we use the method of comparative analysis and
market research to describe the advantages of logistic centers for their
users as well as for society as a whole. Method normal costing is used
for calculation infrastructure and total costs, method of conversion
costing for determine the external costs. We modelled total society
costs for road freight transport and inter modal transport chain (we
assumed that most of the traffic is carried by rail) with different
loading schemes for condition in the Slovak Republic. Our research
has shown that higher utilization of inter modal transport chain do
good not only for society, but for companies providing freight
services too. Increase in use of inter modal transport chain can bring
many benefits to society that do not bring direct immediate financial
return. They often bring the multiplier effects, such as greater use of
environmentally friendly transport mode and reduce the total society
A Book Cover as an Expression of Conceptualization and a Tool of Social Identity Construction: The Interpretation Based on the Example of G. Ritzer's book McDonaldization of Society
The study is based on the assumption that media products are appropriate subjects for the exploration of social and cultural identities as a keystone of value orientations of their authors, producers and target audiences. The research object of the study is the title page of the book cover of a professional publication that serves as a medium of marketing, scientific and intercultural communication, which is the result of semiotic and intercultural transfer. The study aims to answer the question whether the book cover is an expression of conceptualization and tool for social identity construction. It attempts to determine what value orientations and what concepts of social and cultural identities are hidden in the narrative structures of the book cover of the Czech translation of the book by G. Ritzer The McDonaldization of Society (1993), issued after the fall of the iron curtain in 1996 in the Czech Republic.
Particular Qualities of Education in Kazakh Society
Most of the academics connect a theory of
multiculturalism with globalization and limit it by last decades of
20th century. However, Kazakh society encountered with this
problem when the Soviet-s rule emerged. As a result of repression,
the Second World War, development of virgin lands representatives
of more than 100 nationalities lives in Kazakhstan. Communist
ideology propagandized internationalism, which would defined
principles of multicultural community but a common ideology
demands a single culture. As a result multicultural society in the
USSR developed under control of Russian culture. Education in the
USSR was conducted in two departments: autochthonous and
Russian. Autochthonous education narrowed student capabilities.
Also because of soviet ideology science was conducted in Russian
Universities provided education in Russian and all science literature
were in Russian. Exceptions were humanitarian fields where Kazakh
departments were admitted. Naturally non-Kazakhs studied in
Russian departments, moreover Kazakhs preferred to study in
Russian as most do nowadays preferring English. As a result Kazakh
society consisted of Kazakhs, Kazakhs who recognized Russian as a
mother tongue and other nationalities who were also Russian
speakers. This aspect continues to distinguish particular qualities of
multicultural community in Kazakhstan.
The Problem of Power and Management in the Information Society
Modern civilization has come in recent decades into a new phase in its development, called the information society. The concept of "information society" has become one of the most common. Therefore, the attempt to understand what exactly the society we live in, what are its essential features, and possible future scenarios, is important to the social and philosophical analysis. At the heart of all these deep transformations is more increasing, almost defining role knowledge and information as play substrata of «information society». The mankind opened for itself and actively exploits a new resource – information. Information society puts forward on the arena new type of the power, at the heart of which activity – mastering by a new resource: information and knowledge. The password of the new power – intelligence as synthesis of knowledge, information and communications, the strength of mind, fundamental sociocultural values. In a postindustrial society, the power of knowledge and information is crucial in the management of the company, pushing into the background the influence of money and state coercion.
The Culture of Interethnic Concord in Kazakhstan: Peculiarities of Formation and Development
This paper describes the historical development of
interethnic concord in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and emphasizes
the role of tolerance mentality of the Kazakh people in ethno-political
policy of the country. Moreover, pointing out interethnic concord as a
powerful stabilizing factor, it analyses the specifics of interethnic
policy in multinational Kazakh society. It summarizes that the culture
of interethnic concord can be a model of ethno- political policy of
Legal Education as Forming Factor of Legal Culture in Kazakhstan Modern Society
Forming a legal culture among citizens is a
complicated and lengthy process, influencing all spheres of social
life. It includes promoting justice, learning rights and duties, the
introduction of juridical norms and knowledge, and also a process of
developing a system of legal acts and constitutional norms. Currently,
the evaluative and emotional influence of attempts to establish a legal
culture among the citizens of Kazakhstan is limited by real legal
practice. As a result, the values essential to a sound civil society are
absent from the consciousness of the Kazakh people who are thus, in
turn, not able to develop respect for these values. One of the
disadvantages of the modern Kazakh educational system is a
tendency to underrate the actual forces shaping the worldview of
Kazakh youths. The mass-media, which are going through a
personnel crisis, cannot provide society with the legal and political
information necessary to form the sort of legal culture required for a
true civil society.
Philosophy of Education: The Challenges of Globalization and Innovation in the Information Society
Information society is an absolutely new public formation at which the infrastructure and the social relations correspond to the socialized essence of «information genotype» mankind. Information society is a natural social environment which allows the person to open completely the information nature, to use intelligence for joint creation with other people of new information on the basis of knowledge earlier saved up by previous generations.
Two Culture-s Characters in Contemporary Kazakh Cinema
In this article the authors are researching cultural
differences between rural and urban characters in case of
contemporary Kazakh cinema.Two motion pictures are analyzed:
“Strizh" (2007) by AbaiKulbai and “Seker" (2009) by
SabitKurmanbekov.According to the authors- opinion ateenage girl
characters in these two films reflect two cultures (urban and rural) of
Kazakh society, which displays complicated socio-cultural processes
of modern Kazakhstan.
Using Knowledge Management for Creating Knowledge Society through e-Government Services in Montenegro
The waves of eGovernment are rising very fast
through almost all public administration, or at least most of the
public administrations around the world, and not only the public
administration, but also the entire government and all of their
organization as a whole. The government uses information
technology, and above all the internet or web network, to facilitate
the exchange of services between government agencies and citizens,
businesses, employees and other non-governmental agencies. With
efficient and transparent information exchange, the information
becomes accessible to the society (citizens, business, employees etc.),
and as a result of these processes the society itself becomes the
information society or knowledge society. This paper discusses the
knowledge management for eGovernment development in
significance and role. Also, the paper reviews the role of virtual
communities as a knowledge management mechanism to support
eGovernment in Montenegro. It explores the need for knowledge
management in eGovernment, identifies knowledge management
technologies, and highlights the challenges for developing countries,
such as Montenegro in the implementation of eGovernment. The
paper suggests that knowledge management is needed to facilitate
information exchange and transaction processing with citizens, as
well as to enable creation of knowledge society.
Gender Component in the National Project of Kazakhstan
This article describes the aspects of the formation of
the national idea and national identity through the prism of gender
control and its contradistinction to the obsolete, Soviet component.
The role of females in ethnic and national projects is considered from
the point of view of Dr. Nira Yuval-Davis: as biological reproducers
of the ethnic communities- members; as reproducers of the boarders
of ethnic/national groups; as central participants in the ideological
reproduction of community and transducers of its culture; as symbols
in ideology, reproduction and transformation of ethnic/national
categories; and as participants of national, economical, political and
military combats. The society of the transitional type uses the
symbolic resources of the formation of gender component in the
national project. The gender patterns act like cultural codes,
executing the important ideological function in formation of the
national female- image, i.e. the discussion on hijab - it-s not just the
discussion on control over the female body, it-s the discussion on the
metaphor of social order.
Cross-cultural Analysis of the Strategy of Tolerance in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The modern Kazakh society is characterized by strengthen cross-cultural communication, the emergence of new powerful subcultures, accelerated change in social systems and values. The socio-political reforms in all fields have changed the quality of social relationships and spiritual life.Cross-cultural approach involves the analysis of different types of behavior and communication, including the manifestation of the conflict, and the formation of marginal destructive stereotypes.
Problems of Innovative Economy: Forming of«Innovative Society» And Innovative Receptivity
Today many countries have the ambitious purposes of long-term and continuous development: constant growth of competitiveness, maintenance of a high standard of living of the population, leadership in the world market. One of the best possible ways of achievement of these purposes is a transition of the countries to innovative economy. The paper presents the analyses of problems of forming of innovative receptivity to innovations and creation of «innovative society». Creation of an innovative culture in a society and increase of the level of prestige of innovative activity are the best ways of developing of innovative processes. The base of the analysis is a comparing of Russia and different developed countries according to the level of some indictors of innovative activity.1
Assessing Local Knowledge Dynamics: Regional Knowledge Economy Indicators
The paper represents a reflection on how to select proper indicators to assess the progress of regional contexts towards a knowledge-based society. Taking the first research methodologies elaborated at an international level (World Bank, OECD, etc.) as a reference point, this work intends to identify a set of indicators of the knowledge economy suitable to adequately understand in which manner and to which extent the territorial development dynamics are correlated with the knowledge-base of the considered local society. After a critical survey of the variables utilized within other approaches adopted by international or national organizations, this paper seeks to elaborate a framework of variables, named Regional Knowledge Economy Indicators (ReKEI), necessary to describe the knowledge-based relations of subnational socio-economic contexts. The realization of this framework has a double purpose: an analytical one consisting in highlighting the regional differences in the governance of knowledge based processes, and an operative one consisting in providing some reference parameters for contributing to increasing the effectiveness of those economic policies aiming at enlarging the knowledge bases of local societies.
Strategies for Development of Information Society in Montenegro
Creation of information society, or in other words, a
society based on knowledge, has wide consequences, both on
individual and complete society, and in general – on a economy of
one country. Development and implementation of ICT represents a
stimulant for economic growth. On individual level, knowledge,
skills and information gathered using ICT, are expanding individual
possibilities of persons, enabling them to have access to timely
sensitive information, such as market prices or investment
conditions, possibilities to access Government-s or private
development funds, etc. By doing so, productivity is increased both
on individual and national level and therefore social wellbeing in
general. In one word, creation of information society - a knowledge
society is happening.
This work will describe challenges and strategies that will follow
the development as well as obstacles in creating information society
– knowledge society in Montenegro.
Framework of Malaysian Knowledge Society: Results from Dual Data Approach
This paper outlines the research conducted to propose na framework of 'Knowledge Society' (KS) in the Malaysian context.
It is important to highlight that the emergence of KS is a result of the rapid growth in knowledge and information. However, the discussion
of KS should not only be limited to the importance of knowledge, but a holistic KS is also determined by other imperative dimensions. This
article discusses the results of a study conducted previously in Malaysia in order to identify the essential dimensions of KS, and
consequently propose a KS framework in the Malaysian context.
Two methods were employed, namely the Delphi technique and semi-structured interviews. The modified Delphi involved five
rounds with ten experts, while the interviews were conducted with two prominent figures in Malaysia. The results support the proposed
framework which contains seven major dimensions in order for Malaysia to become a KS in the future. The dimensions which are
crucial for a holistic Malaysian KS are human capital, spirituality, economy, social, institutional, sustainability, and driven by the ICT.
Civil Society and Democratization in Africa: The Role of the Civil Society in the 2005 Election in Ethiopia
One of the approaches to democratization is the fostering of civil society organizations. In Africa, civil society organizations did not fully play their role in the continent-s democratization process due to many factors including the repressive regulations imposed on them by governing parties. In Ethiopia, for the first time in the country-s political history, the civil society played a very active role in the 2005 multi-party election. The involvement of the civil society in this election has far-reaching consequences. One of the objectives of this paper is to assess the consequences of such involvement for both the civil society and the political society in the country. The paper also examines the peculiarities of civil society formation in Africa in general, and in Ethiopia in particular by assessing both the “traditional" and “modern" civil society organizations.
Roadmapping as a Collaborative Strategic Decision-Making Process: Shaping Social Dialogue Options for the European Banking Sector
The new status generated by technological advancements and changes in the global economy raises important issues on how communities and organisations need to innovate upon their traditional processes in order to adapt to the challenges of the Knowledge Society. The DialogoS+ European project aims to study the role of and promote social dialogue in the banking sector, strengthen the link between old and new members and make social dialogue at the European level a force for innovation and change, also given the context of the international crisis emerging in 2008- 2009. Under the scope of DialogoS+, this paper describes how the community of Europe-s banking sector trade unions attempted to adapt to the challenges of the Knowledge Society by exploiting the benefits of new channels of communication, learning, knowledge generation and diffusion focusing on the concept of roadmapping. Important dimensions of social dialogue such as collective bargaining and working conditions are addressed.
Empirical Study of Real Retail Trade Turnover
This paper deals with econometric analysis of real
retail trade turnover. It is a part of an extensive scientific research
about modern trends in Croatian national economy. At the end of the
period of transition economy, Croatia confronts with challenges and
problems of high consumption society. In such environment as
crucial economic variables: real retail trade turnover, average
monthly real wages and household loans are chosen for consequence
analysis. For the purpose of complete procedure of multiple
econometric analysis data base adjustment has been provided.
Namely, it has been necessary to deflate original national statistics
data of retail trade turnover using consumer price indices, as well as
provide process of seasonally adjustment of its contemporary
behavior. In model establishment it has been necessary to involve the
overcoming procedure for the autocorrelation and colinearity
problems. Moreover, for case of time-series shift a specific
appropriate econometric instrument has been applied. It would be
emphasize that the whole methodology procedure is based on the real
Croatian national economy time-series.
Stakeholder Analysis: Who are the Key Actorsin Establishing and Developing Thai Independent Consumer Organizations?
In Thailand, both the 1997 and the current 2007 Thai Constitutions have mentioned the establishment of independent organizations as a new mechanism to play a key role in proposing policy recommendations to national decision-makers in the interest of collective consumers. Over the last ten years, no independent organizations have yet been set up. Evidently, nobody could point out who should be key players in establishing provincial independent consumer bodies. The purpose of this study was to find definitive stakeholders in establishing and developing independent consumer bodies in a Thai context. This was a cross-sectional study between August and September 2007, using a postal questionnaire with telephone follow-up. The questionnaire was designed and used to obtain multiple stakeholder assessment of three key attributes (power, interest and influence). Study population was 153 stakeholders associated with policy decision-making, formulation and implementation processes of civil-based consumer protection in pilot provinces. The population covered key representatives from five sectors (academics, government officers, business traders, mass media and consumer networks) who participated in the deliberative forums at 10 provinces. A 49.7% response rate was achieved. Data were analyzed, comparing means of three stakeholder attributes and classification of stakeholder typology. The results showed that the provincial health officers were the definitive stakeholders as they had legal power, influence and interest in establishing and sustaining the independent consumer bodies. However, only a few key representatives of the provincial health officers expressed their own paradigm on the civil-based consumer protection. Most provincial health officers put their own standpoint of building civic participation at only a plan-implementation level. For effective policy implementation by the independent consumer bodies, the Thai government should provide budgetary support for the operation of the provincial health officers with their paradigm shift as well as their own clarified standpoint on corporate governance.
The Role of Faith-based Organizations in Building Democratic Process: Achieving Universal Primary Education in Sierra Leone
This paper aims to argue that religion and Faith-based
Organizations (FBOs) contribute to building democratic process
through the provision of education in Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone
experienced a civil war from 1991 to 2002 and about 70 percent of the
population lives in poverty. While the government has been in the
process of rebuilding the nation, many forms of Civil Society
Organizations (CSOs), including FBOs, have played a significant role
in promoting social development. Education plays an important role in
supporting people-s democratic movements through knowledge
acquisition, spiritual enlightenment and empowerment. This paper
discusses religious tolerance in Sierra Leone and how FBOs have
contributed to the provision of primary education in Sierra Leone. This
study is based on the author-s field research, which involved
interviews with teachers and development stakeholders, notably
government officials, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and
FBOs, as well as questionnaires completed by pupils, parents and
Real E-Government, Real Convenience
In this paper we have suggested a new system for egovernment.
In this method a government can design a precise and
perfect system to control people and organizations by using five
major documents. These documents contain the important
information of each member of a society and help all organizations to
do their informatics tasks through them. This information would be
available by only a national code and a secure program would
support it. The suggested system can give a good awareness to the
society and help it be managed correctly.
Re-Engineering the Human: New Reproductive Technologies and the Specter of Frankenstein
The virulent debates that have dogged research on,
and the diffusion of, a wide range of technologies indicate a growing
loss of confidence in what we might call, the techno-scientific
endeavour to reshape the world. Utopian images of a world rendered
ever more amenable to human desires are now closely shadowed by
just as compelling dystopian visions of monstrosity and disaster that
are nevertheless constructed from the same cultural material. The
paper uses the case of the debates over developments in reproductive
technology to offer some observations on the ways in which such
technologies routinely become enmirred in cultural ambivalence.