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International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 150

Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Nutritional Value Determination of Different Varieties of Oats and Barley Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Horses Nutrition

In horse nutrition, the most suitable cereal for their rations composition could be defined as oats and barley. Oats have high nutritive value because it provides more protein, fiber, iron and zinc than other whole grains, has good taste, and an activity of stimulating metabolic changes in the body. Another cereal – barley is very similar to oats as a feed except for some characteristics that affect how it is used; however, barley is lower in fiber than oats and is classified as a "heavy" feed. The value of oats and barley grain, first of all is dependent on its composition. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has long been considered and used as a significant method in component and quality analysis and as an emerging technology for authenticity applications for cereal quality control. This paper presents the chemical and amino acid composition of different varieties of barley and oats, also digestible energy of different cereals for horses. Ten different spring barley (n = 5) and oats (n = 5) varieties, grown in one location in Lithuania, were assayed for their chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, starch) and amino acids content, digestible amino acids and amino acids digestibility. Also, the grains digestible energy for horses was calculated. The oats and barley samples reflectance spectra were measured by means of NIRS using Foss-Tecator DS2500 equipment. The chemical components: fat, crude protein, starch and fiber differed statistically (P<0.05) between the oats and barley varieties. The highest total amino acid content between oats was determined in variety Flamingsprofi (4.56 g/kg) and the lowest – variety Circle (3.57 g/kg), and between barley - respectively in varieties Publican (3.50 g/kg) and Sebastian (3.11 g/kg). The different varieties of oats digestible amino acid content varied from 3.11 g/kg to 4.07 g/kg; barley different varieties varied from 2.59 g/kg to 2.94 g/kg. The average amino acids digestibility of oats varied from 74.4% (Liz) to 95.6% (Fen) and in barley - from 75.8 % (Tre) to 89.6% (Fen). The amount of digestible energy in the analyzed varieties of oats and barley was an average compound 13.74 MJ/kg DM and 14.85 MJ/kg DM, respectively. An analysis of the results showed that different varieties of oats compared with barley are preferable for horse nutrition according to the crude fat, crude fiber, ash and separate amino acids content, but the analyzed barley varieties dominated the higher amounts of crude protein, the digestible Liz amount and higher DE content, and thus, could be recommended for making feed formulation for horses combining oats and barley, taking into account the chemical composition of using cereal varieties.

Vitamin C Status and Nitric Oxide in Buffalo Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Relation to Seasonal Heat Stress and Phase of Estrous Cycle

Heat stress is a recognized problem causing huge economic losses to the buffalo breeders as well as dairy industry. The aim of the present work was to study the pattern of vitamin C and nitric oxide in follicular fluid of buffalo during different seasons of the year considering phase of estrous cycle. This study was conducted on 208 cyclic buffaloes slaughtered at Al-Qaliobia governorate, Egypt, over one year. The obtained results revealed that vitamin C in follicular fluid was significantly lower in summer than winter and spring. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter and spring. Both vitamin C and NO did not differ significantly between follicular and luteal phases. In conclusion, the present study revealed that alterations in concentrations of follicular fluid vitamin C and NO that occur in summer could be related to low summer fertility in buffalo.

In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa
The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.
The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Effects of Cellular Insulin Receptor Stimulators with Alkaline Water on Performance, Plasma Cholesterol, Glucose, Triglyceride Levels and Hatchability in Breeding Japanese Quail

Aim of this study is to determine the effects of cellular insulin receptor stimulators on performance, plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglyceride, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels, and incubation features in the breeding Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). In the study, a total of 84 breeding quails was used, 6 weeks’ age, 24 are male and 60, female. Rations used in experiment are 2900 kcal/kg metabolic energy and 20% crude protein. Water pH is calibrated to 7.45. Ration and water were administered ad-libitum to the animals. As metformin source, metformin-HCl was used and as chrome resource, chromium picolinate was used. Trial groups were formed as control group (basal ration), metformin group (basal ration, added metformin at the level of feed of 20 mg/kg), and chromium picolinate (basal ration, added feed of 1500 ppb Cr) group. When regarded to the results of performance at the end of experiment, it is seen that live weight gain, feed consumption, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (Feed consumption/ egg weight), and egg production were affected at the significant level (p < 0.05). When the results are evaluated in terms of incubation features, hatchability and hatchability of fertile egg ratio were not affected from the treatments. Fertility ratio was significantly affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments and fertility rose at the significant level compared to control group (p < 0.05). According to results of experiment, plasma glucose level was not affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments. Plasma, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05). Hormone level of Plasma T3 and T4 were also affected at the significant level from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05).

Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug
Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.
The Antidiabetic Properties of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that can be indicated by the high level of blood glucose. The objective of this study was to observe the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed on the profile of pancreatic superoxide dismutase and β-cells in the alloxan- experimental diabetic rats. The Swietenia mahagoni seed was obtained from Leuwiliang-Bogor, Indonesia. Extraction of Swietenia mahagoni was done by using ethanol with maceration methods. A total of 25 male Sprague dawley rats were divided into five groups; (a) negative control group, (b) positive control group (DM), (c) DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, (d) DM group that was treated with acarbose, and (e) non-DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract. The DM groups were induced by alloxan (110 mg/kgBW). The extract was orally administrated to diabetic rats 500 mg/kg/BW/day for 28 days. The extract showed hypoglycemic effect, increased body weight, increased the content of superoxide dismutase in the pancreatic tissue, and delayed the rate of β-cells damage of experimental diabetic rats. These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed could be proposed as a potential anti-diabetic agent.

Result of Fatty Acid Content in Meat of Selenge Breed Younger Cattle

The number of natural or organic product consumers is increased in recent years and this healthy demand pushes to increase usage of healthy meat. At the same time, consumers pay more attention on the healthy fat, especially on unsaturated fatty acids. These long chain carbohydrates reduce heart diseases, improve memory and eye sight and activate the immune system. One of the important issues to be solved for our Mongolia’s food security is to provide healthy, fresh, widely available and cheap meat for the population. Thus, an importance of the Selenge breed meat production is increasing in order to supply the quality meat food security since the Selenge breed cattle are rapidly multiplied, beneficial in term of income, the same quality as Mongolian breed, and well digested for human body. We researched the lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents of meat of Selenge breed younger cattle by their muscle types. Result of our research reveals that 11 saturated fatty acids are detected. For the content of palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids, 23.61% was in the sirloin meat, 24.01% was in the round and chuck meat, and 24.83% was in the short loin meat.

Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish

This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.

Inductions of CaC2 on Sperm Morphology and Viability of the Albino Mice (Mus musculus)

This work investigated possible inductions of CaC2, often misused by fruit vendors to stimulate artificial ripening, on mammalian sperm morphology and viability. Thirty isogenic strains of male albino mice, Mus musculus (age≈ 8weeks; weight= 32.52.0g) were acclimatized (ambient temperature 28.0±1.0°C) for 2 weeks and fed standard growers mash and water ad libutum. They were later exposed to graded toxicant concentrations (w/w) of 2.5000, 1.2500, 0.6250, and 0.3125% in 4 cages. A control cage was also established. After 5 weeks, 3 animals from each cage were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the cauda epididymis excised. Sperm morphology and viability were determined by microscopic procedures. The ANOVA, means plots, Student’s t-test and variation plots were used to analyze data. The common abnormalities observed included Double Head, Pin Head, Knobbed Head, No Tail and With Hook. The higher toxicant concentrations induced significantly lower body weights [F(829.899) ˃ Fcrit(4.19)] and more abnormalities [F(26.52) ˃ Fcrit(4.00)] at P˂0.05. Sperm cells in the control setup were significantly more viable than those in the 0.625% (t=0.005) and 2.500% toxicant doses (t=0.018) at the 95% confidence limit. CaC2 appeared to induced morphological abnormalities and reduced viability in sperm cells of M. musculus.

Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Effect of L-Dopa on Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens
Pure form of L-Dopa is used to enhance muscular development, fat breakdown and suppress Parkinson disease in humans. However, the L-Dopa in mucuna seed, when present with other antinutritional factors, causes nutritional disorders in monogastric animals. Information on the utilisation of pure L-Dopa in monogastric animals is scanty. Therefore, effect of L-Dopa on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens was investigated. Two hundred and forty one-day-old chicks were allotted to six treatments, which consisted of a positive control (PC) with standard energy (3100Kcal/Kg) and negative control (NC) with high energy (3500Kcal/Kg). The rest 4 diets were NC+0.1, NC+0.2, NC+0.3 and NC+0.4% L-Dopa, respectively. All treatments had 4 replicates in a completely randomized design. Body weight gain, final weight, feed intake, dressed weight and carcass characteristics were determined. Body weight gain and final weight of birds fed PC were 1791.0 and 1830.0g, NC+0.1% L-Dopa were 1827.7 and 1866.7g and NC+0.2% L-Dopa were 1871.9 and 1910.9g respectively, and the feed intake of PC (3231.5g), were better than other treatments. The dressed weight at 1375.0g and 1357.1g of birds fed NC+0.1% and NC+0.2% L-Dopa, respectively, were similar but better than other treatments. Also, the thigh (202.5g and 194.9g) and the breast meat (413.8g and 410.8g) of birds fed NC+0.1% and NC+0.2% L-Dopa, respectively, were similar but better than birds fed other treatments. The drum stick of birds fed NC+0.1% L-Dopa (220.5g) was observed to be better than birds on other diets. Meat to bone ratio and relative organ weights were not affected across treatments. L-Dopa extract, at levels tested, had no detrimental effect on broilers, rather better bird performance and carcass characteristics were observed especially at 0.1% and 0.2% L-Dopa inclusion rates. Therefore, 0.2% inclusion is recommended in diets of broiler chickens for improved performance and carcass characteristics.
Seasonal Heat Stress Effect on Cholesterol, Estradiol and Progesterone during Follicular Development in Egyptian Buffalo
Biochemical and hormonal changes that occur in both follicular fluid and blood are involved in the control of ovarian physiology. The present study was conducted on follicular fluid and serum samples obtained from 708 buffaloes. Samples were examined for estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol concentrations in relation to seasonal changes, ovarian follicular size, and stage of estrous cycle. The obtained results revealed that follicular fluid and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol were significantly lower during summer and autumn when compared to winter and spring seasons. With the increase in follicular size, the follicular fluid levels of progesterone and cholesterol were significantly decreased, while estradiol levels were significantly increased. Estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid than blood, while cholesterol was significantly lower in follicular fluid than serum. In conclusion, the current study threw a light on the hormonal changes in the follicular fluid and blood under the effect of heat stress which could be related to the low fertility of buffalo in the summer.
Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats
The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.
Effect of Jatropha curcas Leaf Extract on Castor Oil Induced Diarrhea in Albino Rats
Plants as therapeutic agents are used as drug in many parts of the world. Medicinal plants are mostly used in developing countries due to culture acceptability, belief or due to lack of easy access to primary health care services. Jatropha curcas is a plant from the Euphorbiaceae family which is widely used in Northern Nigeria as an anti-diarrheal agent. This study was conducted to determine the anti-diarrheal effect of the leaf extract on castor oil induced diarrhea in albino rats. The leaves of J. curcas were collected from Balanga Local government in Gombe State, north-eastern Nigeria; due to its bioavailability. The leaves were air-dried at room temperature and ground to powder. Phytochemical screening was done and different concentrations of the extract was prepared and administered to the different categories of experimental animals. From the results, aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha curcas at doses of 200mg/Kg and 400mg/Kg was found to reduce the mean stool score as compared to control rats, however, maximum reduction was achieved with the standard drug of Loperamide (5mg/Kg). Treatment of diarrhea with 200mg/Kg of the extract did not produce any significant decrease in stool fluid content but was found to be significant in those rats that were treated with 400mg/Kg of the extract at 2hours (0.05±0.02) and 4hours (0.01±0.01). A significant reduction of diarrhea in the experimental animals signifies it to possess some anti-diarrheal activity.
Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle
10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.
Occurrence of Adult Taenia saginata in Cattle Slaughtered in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria

The occurrence of adult Taenia saginata in major abattoirs in Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated. Out of 514 cattle investigated, an overall prevalence of 35(6.8%) was recorded. Infected male and female cattle represented 1.2% (6/514) and 5.6% (29/514) of the overall prevalence respectively. There was a statistical significant difference (P< 0.05) in prevalence of adult Taenaia saginata between male and female cattle examined in the study area. Old cattle have a significant (P< 0.05) infestation rate than young ones. Adult Taenia saginata exists in cattle and still remains a public health concern in the study area. Deliberate effort is needed from stake-holders and the Government to design and implement programs that will lead to the prevention and possible eradication of the parasite.

The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs
Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, nonobstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post-operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.
Clinical Signs of Neonatal Calves in Experimental Colisepticemia
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most isolated bacteria from blood circulation of septicemic calves. Given the prevalence of septicemia in animals and its economic importance in veterinary practice, better understanding of changes in clinical signs following disease, may contribute to early detection of disorder. The present study has been carried out to detect changes of clinical signs in induced sepsis in calves with E. coli. Colisepticemia has been induced in 10 twenty-day old healthy Holstein- Frisian calves with intravenous injection of 1.5 X 109 colony forming units (cfu) of O111:H8 strain of E. coli. Clinical signs including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, shock, appetite, sucking reflex, feces consistency, general behavior, dehydration and standing ability were recorded in experimental calves during 24 hours after induction of colisepticemia. Blood culture was also carried out from calves four times during experiment. ANOVA with repeated measure is used to see changes of calves’ clinical signs to experimental colisepticemia, and values of P≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean values of rectal temperature and heart rate as well as median values of respiratory rate, appetite, suckling reflex, standing ability and feces consistency of experimental calves increased significantly during study (P 0.05). The results of present study showed that total score of clinical signs in calves with experimental colisepticemia increased significantly, although score of some clinical signs such as shock did not change significantly.
Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Late Pregnant Cows on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves
To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A in pregnant dairy cows during late stages of pregnancy, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided into three groups; two treatment groups and one control group. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β-carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P> 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in control group (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P> 0.05). β-Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that single injection of vitamin A during at 7 or 8 month of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.
The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast Culture on Microbial Nitrogen Supply to Small Intestine in Male Kivircik Yearlings Fed with Different Forage-Concentrate Ratios
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) live yeast culture on microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik male yearlings when fed with different ratio of forage and concentrate diets. Four Kivircik male yearlings with permanent rumen canula were used in the experiment. The treatments were allocated to a 4x4 Latin square design. Diet I consisted of 70% alfalfa hay and 30% concentrate, Diet II consisted of 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrate, Diet I and II were supplemented with a SC. Daily urine was collected and stored at -20°C until analysis. Calorimetric methods were used for the determination of urinary allantoin and creatinine levels. The estimated microbial N supply to small intestine for Diets I, I+SC, II and II+SC were 2.51, 2.64, 2.95 and 3.43 g N/d respectively. Supplementation of Diets I and II with SC significantly affected the allantoin levels in μmol/W0.75 (p
Essential Oil Blend Containing Capsaicin, Carvacrol and Cinnamaldehyde in Broiler Production Performance and Intestinal Morphometrics
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of supplementing broiler starter diet with different levels of an essential oil blend (EOB) containing capsaicin, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on the performance of broilers. A total of 300 day-old straight-run Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatments after 7-day group brooding following a completely randomized design (CRD). Birds assigned in treatment 1 were given starter basal diet while those in treatments 2 and 3 were given starter basal diet with 400 mg/kg antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) and 150 mg/kg EOB, respectively, until the 28th day. Basal finisher feed were given for all the treatments until harvest. Following 37 d feeding, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, livability and jejunal villi height were determined. Results showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance. However, villi height and crypt depth was significantly lower for birds fed EOB.
Measurements of MRI R2* Relaxation Rate in Liver and Muscle: Animal Model
This study was aimed to measure effective transverse relaxation rates (R2*) in the liver and muscle of normal New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the constituents of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterwards, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) to acquire images for R2* measurements. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(sı) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8 ± 10.9 s-1 and 37.4 ± 9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, the more the iron contents in tissue, the higher the R2*. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbits might be valuable for further exploration.
Crude Glycerol Affects Canine Sperm Motility: Computer Assisted Semen Analysis in vitro
Target of this study was the analysis of the impact of crude glycerol on canine spermatozoa motility, morphology, viability, and membrane integrity. Experiments were realized in vitro. In the study, semen from 5 large dog breeds was used. They were typical representatives of large breeds, coming from healthy rearing, regularly vaccinated and integrated to the further breeding. Semen collections were realized at the owners of animals and in the veterinary clinic. Subsequently the experiments were realized at the Department of Animal Physiology of the SUA in Nitra. The spermatozoa motility was evaluated using CASA analyzer (SpermVisionTM, Minitub, Germany) at the temperature 5 and 37°C for 5 hours. In the study, 13 motility parameters were evaluated. Generally, crude glycerol has generally negative effect on spermatozoa motility. Morphological analysis was realized using Hancock staining and the preparations were evaluated at magnification 1000x using classification tables of morphologically changed spermatozoa. Data clearly detected the highest number of morphologically changed spermatozoa in the experimental groups (know twisted tails, tail torso and tail coiling). For acrosome alterations swelled acrosomes, removed acrosomes and acrosomes with undulated membrane were detected. In this study also the effect of crude glycerol on spermatozoa membrane integrity were analyzed. The highest crude glycerol concentration significantly affects spermatozoa integrity. Results of this study show that crude glycerol has effect of spermatozoa motility, viability, and membrane integrity. Detected changes are related to crude glycerol concentration, temperature, as well as time of incubation.
Effect of Dietary α-Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings
Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.
The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought
Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1 – V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1 – V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3 – V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.
Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey
In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.
In vivo Alterations in Ruminal Parameters by Megasphaera elsdenii Inoculation on Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA)
SARA is a common and serious metabolic disorder in early lactation in dairy cattle and in finishing beef cattle, caused by diets with high inclusion of cereal grain. This experiment was performed to determine the efficacy of Megasphaera elsdenii, a major lactate-utilizing bacterium in prevention/treatment of SARA in vivo. In vivo experimentation, it was used eight ruminally cannulated rams and it was applied the rapid adaptation with the mixture of grain based on wheat (80% wheat, 20% barley) and barley (80% barley, 20% wheat). During the systematic adaptation, it was followed the probability of SARA formation by being measured the rumen pH with two hours intervals after and before feeding. After being evaluated the data, it was determined the ruminal pH ranged from 5.2-5.6 on the condition of feeding with 60 percentage of grain mixture based on barley and wheat, that assured the definite form of subacute acidosis. In four days SARA period, M. elsdenii (1010 cfu ml-1) was inoculated during the first two days. During the SARA period, it was observed the decrease of feed intake with M. elsdenii inoculation. Inoculation of M. elsdenii was caused to differentiation of rumen pH (P
Egg Production Performance of Old Laying Hen Fed Dietary Turmeric Powder

An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of turmeric powder supplementation on egg production performance of old laying hens (80 weeks of age). There were 40 hens of Hysex Brown strain used in the study. They were caged individually, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of diet containing 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4 % oven dried turmeric powder for 3 periods of 4 weeks; Egg production (% hen day) and feed intake of the 4 treatment groups at the commencement of the experiment were not significantly different. In addition to egg production performance (% and egg weight), feed and water intakes were measured daily, and cholesterol content of the whole egg was determined. The results indicated that feed intakes of the hen were significantly lowered when 4% turmeric powder supplemented, while there were no significant changes in water intakes. Egg production were significantly increased and maintained at a higher level by turmeric powder supplementation up to 4% compared with the control, while the weight of eggs were not significantly affected. The research markedly demonstrated that supplementation of turmeric powder up to 4% could improve and maintain egg production performance of the old laying hen at a higher level with a lower cholesterol content. 

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