Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 51

Control and Information Engineering

51
10006052
Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation
Abstract:
Recent technological advance has prompted significant interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems. Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic disturbances.
50
10005755
Digital Control Algorithm Based on Delta-Operator for High-Frequency DC-DC Switching Converters
Abstract:

In this paper, a digital control algorithm based on delta-operator is presented for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters. The stability and the controlling accuracy of the DC-DC switching converters are improved by using the digital control algorithm based on delta-operator without increasing the hardware circuit scale. The design method of voltage compensator in delta-domain using PID (Proportion-Integration- Differentiation) control is given in this paper, and the simulation results based on Simulink platform are provided, which have verified the theoretical analysis results very well. It can be concluded that, the presented control algorithm based on delta-operator has better stability and controlling accuracy, and easier hardware implementation than the existed control algorithms based on z-operator, therefore it can be used for the voltage compensator design in high-frequency digitally- controlled DC-DC switching converters.

49
10005894
Head-Mounted Displays for HCI Validations While Driving
Abstract:

To provide reliable and valid findings when evaluating innovative in-car devices in the automotive context highly realistic driving environments are recommended. Nowadays, in-car devices are mostly evaluated due to driving simulator studies followed by real car driving experiments. Driving simulators are characterized by high internal validity, but weak regarding ecological validity. Real car driving experiments are ecologically valid, but difficult to standardize, more time-robbing and costly. One economizing suggestion is to implement more immersive driving environments when applying driving simulator studies. This paper presents research comparing non-immersive standard PC conditions with mobile and highly immersive Oculus Rift conditions while performing the Lane Change Task (LCT). Subjective data with twenty participants show advantages regarding presence and immersion experience when performing the LCT with the Oculus Rift, but affect adversely cognitive workload and simulator sickness, compared to non-immersive PC condition.

48
10005294
Improving Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Power System by Considering Uncertainty by Using Optimized Type 2 Fuzzy Pid Controller with the Harmony Search Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents the method of designing the type 2 fuzzy PID controllers in order to solve the problem of Load Frequency Control (LFC). The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used to regulate the measurement factors and the effect of uncertainty of membership functions of Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (IT2FPID) controllers in order to reduce the frequency deviation resulted from the load oscillations. The simulation results implicitly show that the performance of the proposed IT2FPID LFC in terms of error, settling time and resistance against different load oscillations is more appropriate and preferred than PID and Type 1 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (T1FPID) controllers.
47
10004886
Design of IMC-PID Controller Cascaded Filter for Simplified Decoupling Control System
Abstract:

In this work, the IMC-PID controller cascaded filter based on Internal Model Control (IMC) scheme is systematically proposed for the simplified decoupling control system. The simplified decoupling is firstly introduced for multivariable processes by using coefficient matching to obtain a stable, proper, and causal simplified decoupler. Accordingly, transfer functions of decoupled apparent processes can be expressed as a set of n equivalent independent processes and then derived as a ratio of the original open-loop transfer function to the diagonal element of the dynamic relative gain array. The IMC-PID controller in series with filter is then directly employed to enhance the overall performance of the decoupling control system while avoiding difficulties arising from properties inherent to simplified decoupling. Some simulation studies are considered to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulations were conducted by tuning various controllers of the multivariate processes with multiple time delays. The results indicate that the proposed method consistently performs well with fast and well-balanced closed-loop time responses.

46
10004853
Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System
Abstract:

In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.

45
10003900
Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Controller
Abstract:

Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Speed Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is developed to achieve the Speed control of PMSM in Closed Loop operation and to deal with the existence of transients. Consider a Fuzzy PID control design problem, based on common control Engineering Knowledge. If the transient error is big, that Good transient performance can be obtained by increasing the P and I gains and decreasing the D gains. To autotune the control parameters of the Fuzzy PID controller, the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are developed. EA based Fuzzy PID controller provides better speed control and guarantees the closed loop stability. The Evolutionary Fuzzy PID controller can be implemented in real time Applications without any concern about instabilities that leads to system failure or damage.

44
10003017
Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication
Abstract:

This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

43
10000673
Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening
Abstract:

This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 micro-controller, able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 micro-controller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code has been used for this hamming code protection.

42
10000274
Performance Comparisons between PID and Adaptive PID Controllers for Travel Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter
Abstract:

This paper provides a comparative study on the performances of standard PID and adaptive PID controllers tested on travel angle of a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) Quanser bench-top helicopter. Quanser, a well-known manufacturer of educational bench-top helicopter has developed Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) controller with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for all travel, pitch and yaw angle of the bench-top helicopter. The performance of the PID controller is relatively good; however, its performance could also be improved if the controller is combined with adaptive element. The objective of this research is to design adaptive PID controller and then compare the performances of the adaptive PID with the standard PID. The controller design and test is focused on travel angle control only. Adaptive method used in this project is self-tuning controller, which controller’s parameters are updated online. Two adaptive algorithms those are pole-placement and deadbeat have been chosen as the method to achieve optimal controller’s parameters. Performance comparisons have shown that the adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller has produced more desirable performance compared to standard PID and adaptive (poleplacement). The adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller attained very fast settling time (5 seconds) and very small percentage of overshoot (5% to 7.5%) for 10° to 30° step change of travel angle.

41
9999860
Design and Development of an Efficient and Cost-Effective Microcontroller-Based Irrigation Control System to Enhance Food Security
Abstract:

The development of the agricultural sector in Ghana has been reliant on the use of irrigation systems to ensure food security. However, the manual operation of these systems has not facilitated their maximum efficiency due to human limitations. This paper seeks to address this problem by designing and implementing an efficient, cost effective automated system which monitors and controls the water flow of irrigation through communication with an authorized operator via text messages. The automatic control component of the system is timer based with an Atmega32 microcontroller and a real time clock from the SM5100B cellular module. For monitoring purposes, the system sends periodic notification of the system on the performance of duty via SMS to the authorized person(s). Moreover, the GSM based Irrigation Monitoring and Control System saves time and labour and reduces cost of operating irrigation systems by saving electricity usage and conserving water. Field tests conducted have proven its operational efficiency and ease of assessment of farm irrigation equipment due to its costeffectiveness and data logging capabilities.

40
9999411
LQR Based PID Controller Design for 3-DOF Helicopter System
Abstract:

In this article, LQR based PID controller design for 3DOF helicopter system is investigated. The 3-DOF helicopter system is a benchmark laboratory model having strongly nonlinear characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such system a challenging task. This article first presents the mathematical model of the 3DOF helicopter system and then illustrates the basic idea and technical formulation for controller design. The paper explains the simple approach for the approximation of PID design parameters from the LQR controller gain matrix. The simulation results show that the investigated controller has both static and dynamic performance, therefore the stability and the quick control effect can be obtained simultaneously for the 3DOF helicopter system.

39
9998932
Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line Following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers
Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

38
9998653
Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller with D-Q-O Reference Frame Technique Based Active Power Filter
Abstract:

Active power filter continues to be a powerful tool to control harmonics in power systems thereby enhancing the power quality. This paper presents a fuzzy tuned PID controller based shunt active filter to diminish the harmonics caused by non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifiers and imbalanced loads. Here Fuzzy controller provides the tuning of PID, based on firing of thyristor bridge rectifiers and variations in input rms current. The shunt APF system is implemented with three phase current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and is connected at the point of common coupling for compensating the current harmonics by injecting equal but opposite filter currents. These controllers are capable of controlling dc-side capacitor voltage and estimating reference currents. Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC) is used to generate switching signals for the voltage source inverter. Simulation studies are carried out with non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifier along with unbalanced loads and the results proved that the APF along with fuzzy tuned PID controller work flawlessly for different firing angles of non linear load.

37
9997556
Low Cost Surface Electromyographic Signal Amplifier Based On Arduino Microcontroller
Abstract:

The development of an low cost acquisition system of S-EMG signals which are reliable, comfortable for the user and with high mobility shows to be a relevant proposition in modern biomedical engineering scenario. In the study, the sampling capacity of the Arduino microcontroller Atmel Atmega328 with an A / D converter with 10-bit resolution and its reconstructing capability of a signal of surface electromyography is analyzed. An electronic circuit to capture the signal through two differential channels was designed, signals from Biceps Brachialis of a healthy man of 21 years was acquired to test the system prototype. ARV, MDF, MNF and RMS estimators were used to compare de acquired signals with physiological values. The Arduino was configured with a sampling frequency of 1.5kHz for each channel, and the tests with the circuit designed offered a SNR of 20.57dB.

36
9997186
Microcontroller Based EOG Guided Wheelchair
Abstract:

A new cost effective, eye controlled method was introduced to guide and control a wheel chair for disable people, based on Electrooculography (EOG). The guidance and control is effected by eye ball movements within the socket. The system consists of a standard electric wheelchair with an on-board microcontroller system attached. EOG is a new technology to sense the eye signals for eye movements and these signals are captured using electrodes, signal processed such as amplification, noise filtering, and then given to microcontroller which drives the motors attached with wheel chair for propulsion. This technique could be very useful in applications such as mobility for handicapped and paralyzed persons.

35
6698
Precision Control of Single-Phase PWM Inverter Using M68HC11E Microcontroller
Abstract:
Induction motors are being used in greater numbers throughout a wide variety of industrial and commercial applications because it provides many benefits and reliable device to convert the electrical energy into mechanical motion. In some application it-s desired to control the speed of the induction motor. Because of the physics of the induction motor the preferred method of controlling its speed is to vary the frequency of the AC voltage driving the motor. In recent years, with the microcontroller incorporated into an appliance it becomes possible to use it to generate the variable frequency AC voltage to control the speed of the induction motor. This study investigates the microcontroller based variable frequency power inverter. the microcontroller is provide the variable frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) signal that control the applied voltage on the gate drive, which is provides the required PWM frequency with less harmonics at the output of the power inverter. The fully controlled bridge voltage source inverter has been implemented with semiconductors power devices isolated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), and the PWM technique has been employed in this inverter to supply the motor with AC voltage. The proposed drive system for three & single phase power inverter is simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The Matlab Simulation Results for the proposed system were achieved with different SPWM. From the result a stable variable frequency inverter over wide range has been obtained and a good agreement has been found between the simulation and hardware of a microcontroller based single phase inverter.
34
5348
A Genetic Algorithm for Optimum Design of PID Controller in Load Frequency Control
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, determining the optimal proportionalintegral- derivative (PID) controller gains of an single-area load frequency control (LFC) system using genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The LFC is notoriously difficult to control optimally using conventionally tuning a PID controller because the system parameters are constantly changing. It is for this reason the GA as tuning strategy was applied. The simulation has been conducted in MATLAB Simulink package for single area power system. the simulation results shows the effectiveness performance of under various disturbance.
33
13168
System Identification and Control the Azimuth Angle of the Platform of MLRS by PID Controller
Abstract:
This paper presents the system identification by physical-s law method and designs the controller for the Azimuth Angle Control of the Platform of the Multi-Launcher Rocket System (MLRS) by Root Locus technique. The plant mathematical model was approximated using MATLAB for simulation and analyze the system. The controller proposes the implementation of PID Controller using Programmable Logic Control (PLC) for control the plant. PID Controllers are widely applicable in industrial sectors and can be set up easily and operate optimally for enhanced productivity, improved quality and reduce maintenance requirement. The results from simulation and experiments show that the proposed a PID Controller to control the elevation angle that has superior control performance by the setting time less than 12 sec, the rise time less than 1.6 sec., and zero steady state. Furthermore, the system has a high over shoot that will be continue development.
32
13878
Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles using Model Predictive PID Controller
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, a new model predictive PID controller design method for the slip suppression control of EVs (electric vehicles) is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the maneuverability and the stability of EVs by controlling the wheel slip ratio. The optimal control gains of PID framework are derived by the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
31
3312
Design of Power System Stabilizer Based on Sliding Mode Control Theory for Multi- Machine Power System
Abstract:
This paper present a new method for design of power system stabilizer (PSS) based on sliding mode control (SMC) technique. The control objective is to enhance stability and improve the dynamic response of the multi-machine power system. In order to test effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulation will be carried out to analyze the small signal stability characteristics of the system about the steady state operating condition following the change in reference mechanical torque and also parameters uncertainties. For comparison, simulation of a conventional control PSS (lead-lag compensation type) will be carried out. The main approach is focusing on the control performance which later proven to have the degree of shorter reaching time and lower spike.
30
8826
MPSO based Model Order Formulation Scheme for Discrete PID Controller Design
Abstract:
This paper proposes the novel model order formulation scheme to design a discrete PID controller for higher order linear time invariant discrete systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation technique has used to obtain the successful formulated second order system. PID controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation and proposed design procedures. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. System specifications are tabulated and closed loop response is observed for stabilization process. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical examples from literature.
29
2109
Design of PID Controller for Higher Order Continuous Systems using MPSO based Model Formulation Technique
Abstract:

This paper proposes a new algebraic scheme to design a PID controller for higher order linear time invariant continuous systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation techniques have applied to obtain the effective formulated second order system. A controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation method. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. The closed loop response is observed for stabilization process and compared with general PSO based formulated second order system. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical example from literature.

28
4067
A Microcontroller Implementation of Constrained Model Predictive Control
Abstract:
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an established control technique in a wide range of process industries. The reason for this success is its ability to handle multivariable systems and systems having input, output or state constraints. Neverthless comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future manufacturing enterprisers as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In this paper, we propose an efficient firmware for the implementation of constrained MPC in the performed STM32 microcontroller using interior point method. Indeed, performances study shows good execution speed and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop predictive control algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard processes. The PID anti windup controller was also implemented in the STM32 in order to make a performance comparison with the MPC. The main features of the proposed constrained MPC framework are illustrated through two examples.
27
7669
A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Abstract:
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32 microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ langage. A performances comparison study was done between both firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware. The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID controller.
26
11611
Tuning a Fractional Order PID Controller with Lead Compensator in Frequency Domain
Abstract:
To achieve the desired specifications of gain and phase margins for plants with time-delay that stabilized with FO-PID controller a lead compensator is designed. At first the range of controlled system stability based on stability boundary criteria is determined. Using stability boundary locus method in frequency domain the fractional order controller parameters are tuned and then with drawing bode diagram in frequency domain accessing to desired gain and phase margin are shown. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the shapes of the stabilizing region and to show the design procedure.
25
15725
Design and Implementation of a Microcontroller Based LCD Screen Digital Stop Watch
Abstract:
The stop watch is used to measure the time required for a certain event. This is different from normal clocks in many ways, one of which is the accuracy of time. The stop watch requires much more accuracy than the normal clocks. In this paper, an ATmega8535 microcontroller was used to control the stop watch, by which perfect accuracy can be ensured. For compiling the C code and for loading the compiled .hex file into the microcontroller, AVR studio and PonyProg were used respectively. The stop watch is also different from traditional stop watches, as it contains two different timing modes namely 'Split timing' and 'Lap timing'.
24
5321
A New Nonlinear PID Controller and its Parameter Design
Abstract:
A new nonlinear PID controller and its stability analysis are presented in this paper. A nonlinear function is deduced from the similarities between the control effort and the electric-field effect of a capacitor. The conventional linear PID controller can be modified into a nonlinear one by this function. To analyze the stability of the nonlinear PID controlled system, an idea of energy equivalence is adapted to avoid the conservativeness which is usually arisen from some traditional theorems and Criterions. The energy equivalence is naturally related with the conceptions of Passivity and T-Passivity. As a result, an engineering guideline for the parameter design of the nonlinear PID controller is obtained. An inverted pendulum system is tested to verify the nonlinear PID control scheme.
23
759
Robust Steam Temperature Regulation for Distillation of Essential Oil Extraction Process using Hybrid Fuzzy-PD plus PID Controller
Abstract:
This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy-PD plus PID (HFPP) controller and its application to steam distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation, a robust steam temperature controller becomes nontrivial to avoid the degradation of essential oil quality. Initially, the PRBS input is triggered to the system and output of steam temperature is modeled using ARX model structure. The parameter estimation and tuning method is adopted by simulation using HFPP controller scheme. The effectiveness and robustness of proposed controller technique is validated by real time implementation to the system. The performance of HFPP using 25 and 49 fuzzy rules is compared. The experimental result demonstrates the proposed HFPP using 49 fuzzy rules achieves a better, consistent and robust controller compared to PID when considering the test on tracking the set point and the effects due to disturbance.
22
1558
Performance Comparison between Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and PD-PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum System
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to compare the time specification performance between conventional controller PID and modern controller SMC for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum-s angle and cart-s position. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. Two controllers are presented such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Proportional- Integral-Derivatives (PID) controllers for controlling the highly nonlinear system of inverted pendulum model. Simulation study has been done in Matlab Mfile and simulink environment shows that both controllers are capable to control multi output inverted pendulum system successfully. The result shows that Sliding Mode Control (SMC) produced better response compared to PID control strategies and the responses are presented in time domain with the details analysis.
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