Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.
Detection of Temporal Change of Fishery and Island Activities by DNB and SAR on the South China Sea
Fishery lights on the surface could be detected by the Day and Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP). The DNB covers the spectral range of 500 to 900 nm and realized a higher sensitivity. The DNB has a difficulty of identification of fishing lights from lunar lights reflected by clouds, which affects observations for the half of the month. Fishery lights and lights of the surface are identified from lunar lights reflected by clouds by a method using the DNB and the infrared band, where the detection limits are defined as a function of the brightness temperature with a difference from the maximum temperature for each level of DNB radiance and with the contrast of DNB radiance against the background radiance. Fishery boats or structures on islands could be detected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the polar orbit satellites using the reflected microwave by the surface reflecting targets. The SAR has a difficulty of tradeoff between spatial resolution and coverage while detecting the small targets like fishery boats. A distribution of fishery boats and island activities were detected by the scan-SAR narrow mode of Radarsat-2, which covers 300 km by 300 km with various combinations of polarizations. The fishing boats were detected as a single pixel of highly scattering targets with the scan-SAR narrow mode of which spatial resolution is 30 m. As the look angle dependent scattering signals exhibits the significant differences, the standard deviations of scattered signals for each look angles were taken into account as a threshold to identify the signal from fishing boats and structures on the island from background noise. It was difficult to validate the detected targets by DNB with SAR data because of time lag of observations for 6 hours between midnight by DNB and morning or evening by SAR. The temporal changes of island activities were detected as a change of mean intensity of DNB for circular area for a certain scale of activities. The increase of DNB mean intensity was corresponding to the beginning of dredging and the change of intensity indicated the ending of reclamation and following constructions of facilities.
Neuron-Based Control Mechanisms for a Robotic Arm and Hand
A robotic arm and hand controlled by simulated
neurons is presented. The robot makes use of a biological neuron
simulator using a point neural model. The neurons and synapses are
organised to create a finite state automaton including neural inputs
from sensors, and outputs to effectors. The robot performs a simple
pick-and-place task. This work is a proof of concept study for a
longer term approach. It is hoped that further work will lead to
more effective and flexible robots. As another benefit, it is hoped that
further work will also lead to a better understanding of human and
other animal neural processing, particularly for physical motion. This
is a multidisciplinary approach combining cognitive neuroscience,
robotics, and psychology.
Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Random Dither Quantization
Recently, feedback control systems using random dither
quantizers have been proposed for linear discrete-time systems.
However, the constraints imposed on state and control variables
have not yet been taken into account for the design of feedback
control systems with random dither quantization. Model predictive
control is a kind of optimal feedback control in which control
performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance
index that has a moving initial and terminal time. An important
advantage of model predictive control is its ability to handle
constraints imposed on state and control variables. Based on the
model predictive control approach, the objective of this paper is to
present a control method that satisfies probabilistic state constraints
for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with random dither
quantization. In other words, this paper provides a method for
solving the optimal control problems subject to probabilistic state
constraints for linear discrete-time feedback control systems with
random dither quantization.
Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation
Recent technological advance has prompted significant
interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems.
Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum
dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger
equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by
Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic
disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control
method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust
stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic
disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method
in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with
a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time.
The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for
model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic
Digital Control Algorithm Based on Delta-Operator for High-Frequency DC-DC Switching Converters
In this paper, a digital control algorithm based on delta-operator is presented for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters. The stability and the controlling accuracy of the DC-DC switching converters are improved by using the digital control algorithm based on delta-operator without increasing the hardware circuit scale. The design method of voltage compensator in delta-domain using PID (Proportion-Integration- Differentiation) control is given in this paper, and the simulation results based on Simulink platform are provided, which have verified the theoretical analysis results very well. It can be concluded that, the presented control algorithm based on delta-operator has better stability and controlling accuracy, and easier hardware implementation than the existed control algorithms based on z-operator, therefore it can be used for the voltage compensator design in high-frequency digitally- controlled DC-DC switching converters.
Head-Mounted Displays for HCI Validations While Driving
To provide reliable and valid findings when evaluating innovative in-car devices in the automotive context highly realistic driving environments are recommended. Nowadays, in-car devices are mostly evaluated due to driving simulator studies followed by real car driving experiments. Driving simulators are characterized by high internal validity, but weak regarding ecological validity. Real car driving experiments are ecologically valid, but difficult to standardize, more time-robbing and costly. One economizing suggestion is to implement more immersive driving environments when applying driving simulator studies. This paper presents research comparing non-immersive standard PC conditions with mobile and highly immersive Oculus Rift conditions while performing the Lane Change Task (LCT). Subjective data with twenty participants show advantages regarding presence and immersion experience when performing the LCT with the Oculus Rift, but affect adversely cognitive workload and simulator sickness, compared to non-immersive PC condition.
Improving Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Power System by Considering Uncertainty by Using Optimized Type 2 Fuzzy Pid Controller with the Harmony Search Algorithm
This paper presents the method of designing the type 2 fuzzy PID controllers in order to solve the problem of Load Frequency Control (LFC). The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used to regulate the measurement factors and the effect of uncertainty of membership functions of Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (IT2FPID) controllers in order to reduce the frequency deviation resulted from the load oscillations. The simulation results implicitly show that the performance of the proposed IT2FPID LFC in terms of error, settling time and resistance against different load oscillations is more appropriate and preferred than PID and Type 1 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (T1FPID) controllers.
Design of IMC-PID Controller Cascaded Filter for Simplified Decoupling Control System
In this work, the IMC-PID controller cascaded filter based on Internal Model Control (IMC) scheme is systematically proposed for the simplified decoupling control system. The simplified decoupling is firstly introduced for multivariable processes by using coefficient matching to obtain a stable, proper, and causal simplified decoupler. Accordingly, transfer functions of decoupled apparent processes can be expressed as a set of n equivalent independent processes and then derived as a ratio of the original open-loop transfer function to the diagonal element of the dynamic relative gain array. The IMC-PID controller in series with filter is then directly employed to enhance the overall performance of the decoupling control system while avoiding difficulties arising from properties inherent to simplified decoupling. Some simulation studies are considered to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulations were conducted by tuning various controllers of the multivariate processes with multiple time delays. The results indicate that the proposed method consistently performs well with fast and well-balanced closed-loop time responses.
Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System
In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.
Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Controller
Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Speed Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is developed to achieve the Speed control of PMSM in Closed Loop operation and to deal with the existence of transients. Consider a Fuzzy PID control design problem, based on common control Engineering Knowledge. If the transient error is big, that Good transient performance can be obtained by increasing the P and I gains and decreasing the D gains. To autotune the control parameters of the Fuzzy PID controller, the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are developed. EA based Fuzzy PID controller provides better speed control and guarantees the closed loop stability. The Evolutionary Fuzzy PID controller can be implemented in real time Applications without any concern about instabilities that leads to system failure or damage.
Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication
This paper describes the design and implementation of
a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside
blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for
communications between each node. Due to the security of locations
in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each
refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all
the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used
because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this
system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring,
fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.
A Study of Quality Assurance and Unit Verification Methods in Safety Critical Environment
In the present case study we examined the development and testing methods of systems that contain safety-critical elements in different industrial fields. Consequentially, we observed the classical object-oriented development and testing environment, as both medical technology and automobile industry approaches the development of safety critical elements that way. Subsequently, we examined model-based development. We introduce the quality parameters that define development and testing. While taking modern agile methodology (scrum) into consideration, we examined whether and to what extent the methodologies we found fit into this environment.
, quality management
, unit verification
, model base testing
, agile methods
, object-oriented programming
, field specific modelling
, user story
, UML Standard.
Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening
This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051
micro-controller, able to assure reliable operation in the presence of
bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the
8051 micro-controller, Hamming code protection was used in its
SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code has been used for this
hamming code protection.
Performance Comparisons between PID and Adaptive PID Controllers for Travel Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter
This paper provides a comparative study on the
performances of standard PID and adaptive PID controllers tested on
travel angle of a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) Quanser bench-top
helicopter. Quanser, a well-known manufacturer of educational
bench-top helicopter has developed Proportional Integration
Derivative (PID) controller with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR)
for all travel, pitch and yaw angle of the bench-top helicopter. The
performance of the PID controller is relatively good; however, its
performance could also be improved if the controller is combined
with adaptive element. The objective of this research is to design
adaptive PID controller and then compare the performances of the
adaptive PID with the standard PID. The controller design and test is
focused on travel angle control only. Adaptive method used in this
project is self-tuning controller, which controller’s parameters are
updated online. Two adaptive algorithms those are pole-placement
and deadbeat have been chosen as the method to achieve optimal
controller’s parameters. Performance comparisons have shown that
the adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller has produced more desirable
performance compared to standard PID and adaptive (poleplacement).
The adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller attained very fast
settling time (5 seconds) and very small percentage of overshoot (5%
to 7.5%) for 10° to 30° step change of travel angle.
Design and Development of an Efficient and Cost-Effective Microcontroller-Based Irrigation Control System to Enhance Food Security
The development of the agricultural sector in Ghana
has been reliant on the use of irrigation systems to ensure food
security. However, the manual operation of these systems has not
facilitated their maximum efficiency due to human limitations.
This paper seeks to address this problem by designing and
implementing an efficient, cost effective automated system which
monitors and controls the water flow of irrigation through
communication with an authorized operator via text messages. The
automatic control component of the system is timer based with an
Atmega32 microcontroller and a real time clock from the SM5100B
cellular module. For monitoring purposes, the system sends periodic
notification of the system on the performance of duty via SMS to the
authorized person(s). Moreover, the GSM based Irrigation
Monitoring and Control System saves time and labour and reduces
cost of operating irrigation systems by saving electricity usage and
Field tests conducted have proven its operational efficiency and
ease of assessment of farm irrigation equipment due to its costeffectiveness
and data logging capabilities.
LQR Based PID Controller Design for 3-DOF Helicopter System
In this article, LQR based PID controller design for
3DOF helicopter system is investigated. The 3-DOF helicopter
system is a benchmark laboratory model having strongly nonlinear
characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such
system a challenging task. This article first presents the mathematical
model of the 3DOF helicopter system and then illustrates the basic
idea and technical formulation for controller design. The paper
explains the simple approach for the approximation of PID design
parameters from the LQR controller gain matrix. The simulation
results show that the investigated controller has both static and
dynamic performance, therefore the stability and the quick control
effect can be obtained simultaneously for the 3DOF helicopter
Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line Following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers
The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.
Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller with D-Q-O Reference Frame Technique Based Active Power Filter
Active power filter continues to be a powerful tool to control harmonics in power systems thereby enhancing the power quality. This paper presents a fuzzy tuned PID controller based shunt active filter to diminish the harmonics caused by non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifiers and imbalanced loads. Here Fuzzy controller provides the tuning of PID, based on firing of thyristor bridge rectifiers and variations in input rms current. The shunt APF system is implemented with three phase current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and is connected at the point of common coupling for compensating the current harmonics by injecting equal but opposite filter currents. These controllers are capable of controlling dc-side capacitor voltage and estimating reference currents. Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC) is used to generate switching signals for the voltage source inverter. Simulation studies are carried out with non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifier along with unbalanced loads and the results proved that the APF along with fuzzy tuned PID controller work flawlessly for different firing angles of non linear load.
Low Cost Surface Electromyographic Signal Amplifier Based On Arduino Microcontroller
The development of an low cost acquisition system of S-EMG signals which are reliable, comfortable for the user and with high mobility shows to be a relevant proposition in modern biomedical engineering scenario. In the study, the sampling capacity of the Arduino microcontroller Atmel Atmega328 with an A / D converter with 10-bit resolution and its reconstructing capability of a signal of surface electromyography is analyzed. An electronic circuit to capture the signal through two differential channels was designed, signals from Biceps Brachialis of a healthy man of 21 years was acquired to test the system prototype. ARV, MDF, MNF and RMS estimators were used to compare de acquired signals with physiological values. The Arduino was configured with a sampling frequency of 1.5kHz for each channel, and the tests with the circuit designed offered a SNR of 20.57dB.
Microcontroller Based EOG Guided Wheelchair
A new cost effective, eye controlled method was introduced to guide and control a wheel chair for disable people, based on Electrooculography (EOG). The guidance and control is effected by eye ball movements within the socket. The system consists of a standard electric wheelchair with an on-board microcontroller system attached. EOG is a new technology to sense the eye signals for eye movements and these signals are captured using electrodes, signal processed such as amplification, noise filtering, and then given to microcontroller which drives the motors attached with wheel chair for propulsion. This technique could be very useful in applications such as mobility for handicapped and paralyzed persons.
Precision Control of Single-Phase PWM Inverter Using M68HC11E Microcontroller
Induction motors are being used in greater numbers
throughout a wide variety of industrial and commercial applications
because it provides many benefits and reliable device to convert the
electrical energy into mechanical motion. In some application it-s
desired to control the speed of the induction motor. Because of the
physics of the induction motor the preferred method of controlling its
speed is to vary the frequency of the AC voltage driving the motor. In
recent years, with the microcontroller incorporated into an appliance
it becomes possible to use it to generate the variable frequency AC
voltage to control the speed of the induction motor.
This study investigates the microcontroller based variable
frequency power inverter. the microcontroller is provide the variable
frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) signal that control the
applied voltage on the gate drive, which is provides the required
PWM frequency with less harmonics at the output of the power
The fully controlled bridge voltage source inverter has been
implemented with semiconductors power devices isolated gate
bipolar transistor (IGBT), and the PWM technique has been
employed in this inverter to supply the motor with AC voltage.
The proposed drive system for three & single phase power inverter
is simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The Matlab Simulation Results
for the proposed system were achieved with different SPWM. From
the result a stable variable frequency inverter over wide range has
been obtained and a good agreement has been found between the
simulation and hardware of a microcontroller based single phase
A Genetic Algorithm for Optimum Design of PID Controller in Load Frequency Control
In this paper, determining the optimal proportionalintegral-
derivative (PID) controller gains of an single-area load
frequency control (LFC) system using genetic algorithm (GA) is
presented. The LFC is notoriously difficult to control optimally using
conventionally tuning a PID controller because the system parameters
are constantly changing. It is for this reason the GA as tuning strategy
was applied. The simulation has been conducted in MATLAB
Simulink package for single area power system. the simulation results
shows the effectiveness performance of under various disturbance.
System Identification and Control the Azimuth Angle of the Platform of MLRS by PID Controller
This paper presents the system identification by
physical-s law method and designs the controller for the Azimuth
Angle Control of the Platform of the Multi-Launcher Rocket System
(MLRS) by Root Locus technique. The plant mathematical model
was approximated using MATLAB for simulation and analyze the
system. The controller proposes the implementation of PID
Controller using Programmable Logic Control (PLC) for control the
plant. PID Controllers are widely applicable in industrial sectors and
can be set up easily and operate optimally for enhanced productivity,
improved quality and reduce maintenance requirement. The results
from simulation and experiments show that the proposed a PID
Controller to control the elevation angle that has superior control
performance by the setting time less than 12 sec, the rise time less
than 1.6 sec., and zero steady state. Furthermore, the system has a
high over shoot that will be continue development.
Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles using Model Predictive PID Controller
In this paper, a new model predictive PID controller
design method for the slip suppression control of EVs (electric
vehicles) is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the
maneuverability and the stability of EVs by controlling the wheel
slip ratio. The optimal control gains of PID framework are derived
by the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. There also include
numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
Design of Power System Stabilizer Based on Sliding Mode Control Theory for Multi- Machine Power System
This paper present a new method for design of power
system stabilizer (PSS) based on sliding mode control (SMC)
technique. The control objective is to enhance stability and improve
the dynamic response of the multi-machine power system. In order to
test effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulation will be carried
out to analyze the small signal stability characteristics of the system
about the steady state operating condition following the change in
reference mechanical torque and also parameters uncertainties. For
comparison, simulation of a conventional control PSS (lead-lag
compensation type) will be carried out. The main approach is
focusing on the control performance which later proven to have the
degree of shorter reaching time and lower spike.
MPSO based Model Order Formulation Scheme for Discrete PID Controller Design
This paper proposes the novel model order
formulation scheme to design a discrete PID controller for higher
order linear time invariant discrete systems. Modified PSO (MPSO)
based model order formulation technique has used to obtain the
successful formulated second order system. PID controller is tuned to
meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero
cancellation and proposed design procedures. Proposed PID
controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated
second order system. System specifications are tabulated and closed
loop response is observed for stabilization process. The proposed
method is illustrated through numerical examples from literature.
Design of PID Controller for Higher Order Continuous Systems using MPSO based Model Formulation Technique
This paper proposes a new algebraic scheme to design a PID controller for higher order linear time invariant continuous systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation techniques have applied to obtain the effective formulated second order system. A controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation method. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. The closed loop response is observed for stabilization process and compared with general PSO based formulated second order system. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical example from literature.
A Microcontroller Implementation of Constrained Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an established control
technique in a wide range of process industries. The reason for
this success is its ability to handle multivariable systems and systems
having input, output or state constraints. Neverthless comparing to
PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in miniaturized
devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and microcontrollers
has historically been very small scale due to its complexity in
implementation and its computation time requirement. At the same
time, such embedded technologies have become an enabler for future
manufacturing enterprisers as well as a transformer of organizations
and markets. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances
in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and applied
control technique in the industrial engineering. In this paper, we
propose an efficient firmware for the implementation of constrained
MPC in the performed STM32 microcontroller using interior point
method. Indeed, performances study shows good execution speed
and low computational burden. These results encourage to develop
predictive control algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard
processes. The PID anti windup controller was also implemented in
the STM32 in order to make a performance comparison with the
MPC. The main features of the proposed constrained MPC framework
are illustrated through two examples.
A Microcontroller Implementation of Model Predictive Control
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is increasingly being
proposed for real time applications and embedded systems. However
comparing to PID controller, the implementation of the MPC in
miniaturized devices like Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)
and microcontrollers has historically been very small scale due to its
complexity in implementation and its computation time requirement.
At the same time, such embedded technologies have become an
enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer
of organizations and markets. Recently, advances in microelectronics
and software allow such technique to be implemented in embedded
systems. In this work, we take advantage of these recent advances
in this area in the deployment of one of the most studied and
applied control technique in the industrial engineering. In fact in
this paper, we propose an efficient framework for implementation
of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) in the performed STM32
microcontroller. The STM32 keil starter kit based on a JTAG interface
and the STM32 board was used to implement the proposed GPC
firmware. Besides the GPC, the PID anti windup algorithm was
also implemented using Keil development tools designed for ARM
processor-based microcontroller devices and working with C/Cµ
langage. A performances comparison study was done between both
firmwares. This performances study show good execution speed and
low computational burden. These results encourage to develop simple
predictive algorithms to be programmed in industrial standard hardware.
The main features of the proposed framework are illustrated
through two examples and compared with the anti windup PID