Fuzzy Inference System for Determining Collision Risk of Ship in Madura Strait Using Automatic Identification System
Madura Strait is considered as one of the busiest shipping channels in Indonesia. High vessel traffic density in Madura Strait gives serious threat due to navigational safety in this area, i.e. ship collision. This study is necessary as an attempt to enhance the safety of marine traffic. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) is proposed to calculate risk collision of ships. Collision risk is evaluated based on ship domain, Distance to Closest Point of Approach (DCPA), and Time to Closest Point of Approach (TCPA). Data were collected by utilizing Automatic Identification System (AIS). This study considers several ships’ domain models to give the characteristic of marine traffic in the waterways. Each encounter in the ship domain is analyzed to obtain the level of collision risk. Risk level of ships, as the result in this study, can be used as guidance to avoid the accident, providing brief description about safety traffic in Madura Strait and improving the navigational safety in the area.
Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data
It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.
Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as a Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures
The corrosion is natural chemical phenomenon that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.
Experimental Analyses of Thermoelectric Generator Behavior Using Two Types of Thermoelectric Modules for Marine Application
Thermal power technology such as the TEG (Thermo-Electric Generator) arouses significant attention worldwide for waste heat recovery. Despite the potential benefits of marine application due to the permanent heat sink from sea water, no significant studies on this application were to be found. In this study, a test rig has been designed and built to test the performance of the TEG on engine operating points. The TEG device is built from commercially available materials for the sake of possible economical application. Two types of commercial TEM (thermo electric module) have been studied separately on the test rig. The engine data were extracted from a commercial Diesel engine since it shares the same principle in terms of engine efficiency and exhaust with the marine Diesel engine. An open circuit water cooling system is used to replicate the sea water cold source. The characterization tests showed that the silicium-germanium alloys TEM proved a remarkable reliability on all engine operating points, with no significant deterioration of performance even under sever variation in the hot source conditions. The performance of the bismuth-telluride alloys was 100% better than the first type of TEM but it showed a deterioration in power generation when the air temperature exceeds 300 °C. The temperature distribution on the heat exchange surfaces revealed no useful combination of these two types of TEM with this tube length, since the surface temperature difference between both ends is no more than 10 °C. This study exposed the perspective of use of TEG technology for marine engine exhaust heat recovery. Although the results suggested non-sufficient power generation from the low cost commercial TEM used, it provides valuable information about TEG device optimization, including the design of heat exchanger and the types of thermo-electric materials.
Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed
In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.
Numerical Analysis of the Turbulent Flow around DTMB 4119 Marine Propeller
This article presents a numerical analysis of a turbulent flow past DTMB 4119 marine propeller by the means of RANS approach; the propeller designed at David Taylor Model Basin in USA. The purpose of this study is to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the marine propeller, it aims also to compare the results obtained with the experiment carried out in open water tests; a periodical computational domain was created to reduce the unstructured mesh size generated. The standard kw turbulence model for the simulation is selected; the results were in a good agreement. Therefore, the errors were estimated respectively to 1.3% and 5.9% for KT and KQ.
The Ecological Role of Loligo forbesii in the Moray Firth Ecosystem, Northeast Scotland
The squid Loligo forbesii is suspected to be an important species in marine food webs, as it can strongly impact its prey and be impacted upon by predation, competition, fishing and/or climate variability. To quantify these impacts in the food web, the measurement of its trophic position and ecological role within well-studied ecosystems is essential. An Ecopath model was balanced and run for the Moray Firth ecosystem and was used to investigate the significance of this squid’s trophic roles. The network analysis routine included in Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) was used to estimate trophic interaction, system indicators (health condition and developmental stage) and food web features. Results indicated that within the Moray Firth squid occupy a top trophic position in the food web and also a major prey item for many other species. Results from Omnivory Index (OI) showed that squid is a generalized feeder transferring energy across wide trophic levels and is more important as a predator than that as a prey in the Moray Firth ecosystem. The results highlight the importance of taking squid into account in the management of Europe’s living marine resources.
PhilSHORE: Development of a WebGIS-Based Marine Spatial Planning Tool for Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment and Site Suitability Analysis
PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multicriteria
decision support tool designed to support the development of
tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the
collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial
data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development
applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial
planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs
of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis.
It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of
tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability
analyses. Results of the initial development show that PhilSHORE is
a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.
A Review on Marine Search and Rescue Operations Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
There have been rigorous research and development
of unmanned aerial vehicles in the field of search and rescue (SAR)
operation recently. UAVs reduce unnecessary human risks while
assisting rescue efforts through aerial imagery, topographic mapping
and emergency delivery. The application of UAVs in offshore and
nearshore marine SAR missions is discussed in this paper. Projects
that integrate UAV technology into their systems are introduced to
highlight the great advantages and capabilities of UAVs. Scenarios
where UAVs could provide invaluable assistance are also suggested.
Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France
This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.
The Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Marine Actinomycete Strain HP411 Isolated in the Northern Coast of Vietnam
Since the marine environmental conditions are
extremely different from the other ones, marine actinomycetes might
produce novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, actinomycete strains
were screened from marine water and sediment samples collected
from the coastal areas of Northern Vietnam. Ninety-nine
actinomycete strains were obtained on starch-casein agar media by
dilution technique, only seven strains, named HP112, HP12, HP411,
HPN11, HP 11, HPT13 and HPX12, showed significant antibacterial
activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
(Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus epidemidis ATCC
12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 11105). Further studies were carried
out with the most active HP411 strain against Candida albicans
ATCC 10231. This strain could grow rapidly on starch casein agar
and other media with high salt containing 7-10% NaCl at 28-30oC.
Spore-chain of HP411 showed an elongated and circular shape with
10 to 30 spores/chain. Identification of the strain was carried out by
employing the taxonomical studies including the 16S rRNA
sequence. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is
proposed that HP411 to be belongs to species Streptomyces
variabilis. The potent of the crude extract of fermentation broth of
HP411 that are effective against wide range of pathogens: both grampositive,
gram-negative and fungi. Further studies revealed that the
crude extract HP411 could obtain the anticancer activity for cancer
cell lines: Hep-G2 (liver cancer cell line); RD (cardiac and skeletal
muscle letters cell line); FL (membrane of the uterus cancer cell line).
However, the actinomycetes from marine ecosystem will be useful
for the discovery of new drugs in the future.
The Use of Scuba Diving Tourism for Marine Protected Area Management
Marine Protected Areas can benefit from nature based
tourism, monitoring environmental impacts and also become target
for human presence. From more than 3 million tourists visiting
Cozumel Island every year, an average of 2,8 million arrive by cruise
ship, and 41% are estimated to have motivation for water activities.
The destination is relying so much on the tourism activity, that scuba
diving and snorkeling in the National Park Reef of Cozumel sustain
the major economic activity. In order to achieve the sustainable
development indicator designed for regional environmental
development, the PNAC offers a training course to tourism providers
to access the protected area. This way, the update of the last 5 years
of such training is directed to diving staff, boat crew and
professionals, making them able to assist in managing the natural
resource. Moreover, the case study is an example to be used for
raising awareness among tourists visiting protected areas.
Fish Locomotion for Innovative Marine Propulsion Systems
There is an essential need for obtaining the mathematical representation of fish body undulations, which can be used for designing and building new innovative types of marine propulsion systems with less environmental impact. This research work presents a case study to derive the mathematical model for fish body movement. Observation and capturing image methods were used in this study in order to obtain a mathematical representation of Clariasbatrachus fish (catfish). An experiment was conducted by using an aquarium with dimension 0.609 m x 0.304 m x 0.304 m, and a 0.5 m ruler was attached at the base of the aquarium. Progressive Scan Monochrome Camera was positioned at 1.8 m above the base of the aquarium to provide swimming sequences. Seven points were marked on the fish body using white marker to indicate the fish movement and measuring the amplitude of undulation. Images from video recordings (20 frames/s) were analyzed frame by frame using local coordinate system, with time interval 0.05 s. The amplitudes of undulations were obtained for image analysis from each point that has been marked on fish body. A graph of amplitude of undulations versus time was plotted by using computer to derive a mathematical fit. The function for the graph is polynomial with nine orders.
The Contribution of Sulfate and Oxidized Organics in Climatically Important Ultrafine Particles at a Coral Reef Environment
In order to investigate the properties of coral reef origin secondary aerosol and especially the contribution of secondary organic aerosol, ethanol affinity to atmospheric nucleation mode particles (diameter<15nm) was measured at the Heron reef marine environment in the South Pacific Ocean during the first coral reef aerosol characterization experiment in May-June 2011 using an ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer.
Our campaign study at Heron reef showed that the nucleation mode size particles (diameter =10nm) composition contain internally mixed sulfate and oxidized organic components in approximately equal proportion in sunny and still conditions around low tide time, indicating local biogenic sources. The produced secondary compounds and aerosols have potential to contribute to cloud condensation nuclei formation and properties that may affect local low-level cloud formation over the GBR. Additionally, primary marine sea-salt and organic material during windy conditions and anthropogenic/biogenic sources during continental air masses can affect the properties of these particles.
Could Thermal Oceanic Hotspot Increase Climate Changes Activities in North Tropical Atlantic: Example of the 2005 Caribbean Coral Bleaching Hotspot and Hurricane Katrina Interaction
This paper reviews recent studies and particularly the
effects of Climate Change in the North Tropical Atlantic by studying
atmospheric conditions that prevailed in 2005 ; Coral Bleaching
HotSpot and Hurricane Katrina. In the aim to better understand and
estimate the impact of the physical phenomenon, i.e. Thermal
Oceanic HotSpot (TOHS), isotopic studies of δ18O and δ13C on
marine animals from Guadeloupe (French Caribbean Island) were
carried out. Recorded measures show Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
up to 35°C in August which is much higher than data recorded by
NOAA satellites 32°C. After having reviewed the process that led to
the creation of Hurricane Katrina which hit New Orleans in August
29, 2005, it will be shown that the climatic conditions in the
Caribbean from August to October 2005 have influenced Katrina
evolution. This TOHS is a combined effect of various phenomenon
which represent an additional factor to estimate future climate
Experimental Study of Open Water Non-Series Marine Propeller Performance
Later marine propeller is the main component of ship
propulsion system. For a non-series propeller, it is difficult to
indicate the open water marine propeller performance without an
experimental study to measure the marine propeller parameters.
In the present study, the open water performance of a non-series
marine propeller has been carried out experimentally. The
geometrical aspects of a commercial non-series marine propeller
have been measured for a propeller blade area ratio of 0.3985. The
measured propeller performance parameters were the thrust and
torque coefficients for different propeller rotational speed and
different water channel flow velocity, then the open water
performance for the propeller has been plotted.
In addition, a direct comparison between the obtained
experimental results and a theoretical study of a B-series marine
propeller of the same blade area ratio has been carried out. A
correction factor has been introduced to apply the operating
conditions of the experimental results to that of the theoretical study
for the studied marine propeller.
Tourists, on Marine Sport Tourism Attraction, Travel Experiences and Perceived Values
The purpose of this study is to analyze the cognitive
and travel experience the situation of the tourist attraction of the sport
tourism in Penghu. This study used a questionnaires, the main island
of Taiwan to Penghu in the way of marine sports tourists adopted the
designated convenience sampling method, a total of 1447 valid
questionnaires. After statistical analysis, this study found that: 1.
Tourists to Penghu sports tourism attraction cognitive as “good air
quality, suitable for water activities". 2. Tourists in Penghu's tourism
experience, “Let me taste the delicious specialties and snacks". 3. The
attraction of the sport tourism, travel experience and perceived value
are correlated, and both the perceived value with a high degree of
predictive ability. Based on the findings of this study not only for
Penghu's tourism industry with the unit in charge of the proposed
operating and suggestions for future research to other researchers.
Floristic Richness of the Tropical Coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal, a Treasure to be Conserved
Coastal zone combines terrestrial, marine and atmospheric factors and gives rise to unique landforms that play an important role in long-term sustainability of the hinterland and economy of maritime nations. World over, efforts have been put forth to understand plants of the seacoasts. In India also, plants of several geographical entities have been well documented, but works devoted to plant communities of the vast tropical coast of India and its States are still insufficient. Therefore, an inventory of plants flourishing in a stretch of ~450km of the Coastal Regulatory Zone I encompassing a total of 84 villages in 6 revenue Districts of northern Andhra Pradesh (15o42’06”N, 80o51’03”E to 19o05’51”N, 84o47’44”E) along Bay of Bengal was carried out. The study revealed presence of a total of 364 species belonging to 225 genera under 71 families. In addition to inventory, zonation pattern, ethnobotany, and certain interesting ecological facts are included.
In Vitro and Experimental Screening of Mangrove Herbal Extract against Vibrio Alginolyticus in Marine Ornamental Fish
Present study summarizes the control of Vibrio
alginolyticus infection in hatchery reared Clownfish, Amphiprion
sebae with the extract of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina.
Fishes with visible symptoms of hemorrhagic spots were chosen and
the genomic DNA of the causative bacterium was isolated and
sequenced based on 16S rDNA gene. The in vitro assay revealed that
a fraction of A. marina leaf extract elucidated with ethyl acetate:
methanol (6:4) showed a high activity (28 mm) at 125 μg/ml
concentrations. About 4 % of the fraction fed along with live V.
alginolyticus was significantly decreased the cumulative mortality
The Advent of Electronic Logbook Technology - Reducing Cost and Risk to Both Marine Resources and the Fishing Industry
Fisheries management all around the world is
hampered by the lack, or poor quality, of critical data on fish
resources and fishing operations. The main reasons for the chronic
inability to collect good quality data during fishing operations is the
culture of secrecy common among fishers and the lack of modern
data gathering technology onboard most fishing vessels. In response,
OLRAC-SPS, a South African company, developed fisheries datalogging
software (eLog in short) and named it Olrac. The Olrac eLog
solution is capable of collecting, analysing, plotting, mapping,
reporting, tracing and transmitting all data related to fishing
operations. Olrac can be used by skippers, fleet/company managers,
offshore mariculture farmers, scientists, observers, compliance
inspectors and fisheries management authorities. The authors believe
that using eLog onboard fishing vessels has the potential to
revolutionise the entire process of data collection and reporting
during fishing operations and, if properly deployed and utilised,
could transform the entire commercial fleet to a provider of good
quality data and forever change the way fish resources are managed.
In addition it will make it possible to trace catches back to the actual
individual fishing operation, to improve fishing efficiency and to
dramatically improve control of fishing operations and enforcement
of fishing regulations.
Antimicrobial, Antiplasmid and Cytotoxicity Potentials of Marine Algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme Collected from Red Sea Coast
The antimicrobial, antiplasmid and cytotoxic activities of marine algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme were investigated. Antimicrobial bioassay against some human pathogenic bacteria and yeast were conducted using disc diffusion method. Halimeda extract exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of microrganisms, with significant inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. While Sarconema extract was better potent as antifungal against Candida albicans. Comparative antibacterial studies showed that Halimeda extract showed equivalent or better activity as compared with commercial antibiotic when tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Further tests conducted using dilution method showed both extracts as having bacteriostatic mode of action against the tested microorganisms. Methanol extract of two species showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 <500μg) on brine shrimp. Halimeda opuntia showed highest cytotoxic activity (LC50 =192.3μg). Also, the present investigation was undertaken to investigate the ability of methanolic extract of the algal extracts to cure R-plasmids from certain clinical E. coli isolates. The active fraction of Halimeda and Sarconema could cure plasmids from E. coli at curing efficiencies of approximately 78%. The active fraction mediated plasmid curing resulted in the subsequent loss of antibiotic resistance encoded in the plasmids as revealed by antibiotic resistance profile of cured strains. The screening results confirm the possible use of marine algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme as a source of pharmacological benefits.
Probabilistic Modelling of Marine Bridge Deterioration
Chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement is
the main cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete marine
structures. This paper investigates the relative performance of
alternative repair options with respect to the deterioration of
reinforced concrete bridge elements in marine environments. Focus is
placed on the initiation phase of reinforcement corrosion. A
laboratory study is described which involved exposing concrete
samples to accelerated chloride-ion ingress. The study examined the
relative efficiencies of two repair methods, namely Ordinary Portland
Cement (OPC) concrete and a concrete which utilised Ground
Granulated Blastfurnace Cement (GGBS) as a partial cement
replacement. The mix designs and materials utilised were identical to
those implemented in the repair of a marine bridge on the South East
coast of Ireland in 2007. The results of this testing regime serve to
inform input variables employed in probabilistic modelling of
deterioration for subsequent reliability based analysis to compare the
relative performance of the studied repair options.
Determination of Penicillins Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by LC/MS/MS
Multi-residue analysis method for penicillins was
developed and validated in bovine muscle, chicken, milk, and flatfish.
Detection was based on liquid chromatography tandem mass
spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The developed method was validated for
specificity, precision, recovery, and linearity. The analytes were
extracted with 80% acetonitrile and clean-up by a single
reversed-phase solid-phase extraction step. Six penicillins presented
recoveries higher than 76% with the exception of Amoxicillin
(59.7%). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were not more than
10%. LOQs values ranged from 0.1 and to 4.5 ug/kg. The method was
applied to 128 real samples. Benzylpenicillin was detected in 15
samples and Cloxacillin was detected in 7 samples. Oxacillin was
detected in 2 samples. But the detected levels were under the MRL
levels for penicillins in samples.
Microbiological Contamination of Outdoor Air in Marine Durres's Harbour, Albania
Microbial air contamination of the outdoor air in Marine Durres-s Harbour (Durres, Albania) was estimated by sedimentation technique in August-October 2008. The sampling areas were: Ferry Terminal (FT), Fishery Harbor (FH), East Zone (EZ), Fuel Quay (FQ) and Apollonian Beach (AB). The aim of this study was to measure the number of aerobic plate count (mesophilic aerobic bacteria) and fungi (yeasts and molds) in the outdoor air in these areas. The number of colonies that were formed determines the number of cells at the moment in the outdoor air; respectively the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds. The measure of bacteria and fungi used is CFU (Colony Forming Units) per Petri dish. It is said that marine harbours are very polluted areas. The aim of study was the definition of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeasts and molds number, and the comparison of microorganisms number in air sampling areas.
Applying Half-Circle Fuzzy Numbers to Control System: A Preliminary Study on Development of Intelligent System on Marine Environment and Engineering
This study focuses on the development of triangular fuzzy numbers, the revising of triangular fuzzy numbers, and the constructing of a HCFN (half-circle fuzzy number) model which can be utilized to perform more plural operations. They are further transformed for trigonometric functions and polar coordinates. From half-circle fuzzy numbers we can conceive cylindrical fuzzy numbers, which work better in algebraic operations. An example of fuzzy control is given in a simulation to show the applicability of the proposed half-circle fuzzy numbers.
Environmental Issues Related to Nuclear Desalination
The paper presents an overview of environmental
issues that may be expected with nuclear desalination. The analysis
of coupling nuclear power with desalination plants indicates that
adverse marine impacts can be mitigated with alternative intake
designs or cooling systems. The atmospheric impact of desalination
may be greatly reduced through the coupling with nuclear power,
while maximizing the socio-economic benefit for both processes. The
potential for tritium contamination of the desalinated water was
reviewed. Experience with the systems and practices related to the
radiological quality of the product water, shows no examples of
cross-contamination. Furthermore, the indicators for the public
acceptance of nuclear desalination, as one of the most important
sustainability aspects of any such large project, show a positive trend.
From the data collected, a conclusion is made that nuclear
desalination should be supported by decision-makers.
Rheological Characterisation of Collagen Gels from Marine Resources of Black Sea and Chlohexidine Salt for using in Dental Medicine
In the paper we presented the possibility of application
collagen gels with active principle-s from marine algae extract and chlorhexidine salt in dental medicine. The hydro-alcoholic extracts
from marine algae have been used as they have been obtained. The extracts from marine algae and chlorhexidine salt (digluconate) are
incorporated in type I non-denatured fibrillar collagen matrixes. In order to obtain therapeutic effects at nanostructure level, it is important to know the rheological characteristics of the relevant mixtures of collagen gels and extracts from marine algae selected for use. In this survey we have studied mixtures made of non-denatured
fibrillar collagen hydro-gels where different concentrations of marine
algae have been incorporated. Based on the data obtained for the
shearing tensions, we have traced the rheograms – the diagrams for shearing tensions depending on the shearing speed values – from
which we have calculated the apparent viscosities as ratios between shearing tension and speed values, which have been figured in
relation to the shearing speed values, with a view to levelling
Curing Time Effect on Behavior of Cement Treated Marine Clay
Cement stabilization has been widely used for
improving the strength and stiffness of soft clayey soils. Cement
treated soil specimens used to investigate the stress-strain behaviour in
the laboratory study are usually cured for 7 days. This paper examines
the effects of curing time on the strength and stress strain behaviour of
cement treated marine clay under triaxial loading condition.
Laboratory-prepared cement treated Singapore marine clay with
different mix proportion S-C-W (soil solid-cement solid-water) and
curing time (7 days to 180 days) was investigated through conducting
unconfined compressive strength test and triaxial test. The results
show that the curing time has a significant effect on the unconfined
compressive strength u q , isotropic compression behaviour and stress
strain behaviour. Although the primary yield loci of the cement treated
soil specimens with the same mix proportion expand with curing time,
they are very narrowly banded and have nearly the same shape after
being normalized by isotropic compression primary stress '
py p . The
isotropic compression primary yield stress '
py p was shown to be
linearly related to unconfined compressive strength u q for specimens
with different curing time and mix proportion. The effect of curing
time on the hardening behaviour will diminish with consolidation
stress higher than isotropic compression primary yield stress but its
damping rate is dependent on the cement content.
A Two-Species Model for a Fishing System with Marine Protected Areas
A model of a system concerning one species of demersal
(inshore) fish and one of pelagic (offshore) fish undergoing fishing
restricted by marine protected areas is proposed in this paper. This
setup was based on the FISH-BE model applied to the Tabina fishery
in Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. The components of the model
equations have been adapted from widely-accepted mechanisms in
population dynamics. The model employs Gompertz-s law of growth
and interaction on each type of protected and unprotected subpopulation.
Exchange coefficients between protected and unprotected
areas were assumed to be proportional to the relative area of the
entry region. Fishing harvests were assumed to be proportional to
both the number of fishers and the number of unprotected fish. An
extra term was included for the pelagic population to allow for the
exchange between the unprotected area and the outside environment.
The systems were found to be bounded for all parameter values. The
equations for the steady state were unsolvable analytically but the
existence and uniqueness of non-zero steady states can be proven.
Plots also show that an MPA size yielding the maximum steady state
of the unprotected population can be found. All steady states were
found to be globally asymptotically stable for the entire range of
Energy Production from Marine Biomass: Fuel Cell Power Generation Driven by Methane Produced from Seaweed
This paper discusses the utilization of marine biomass as an energy resource in Japan. A marine biomass energy system in Japan was proposed consisting of seaweed cultivation (Laminaria japonica) at offshore marine farms, biogas production via methane fermentation of the seaweeds, and fuel cell power generation driven by the generated biogas. We estimated energy output, energy supply potential, and CO2 mitigation in Japan on the basis of the proposed system. As a result, annual energy production was estimated to be 1.02-109 kWh/yr at nine available sites. Total CO2 mitigation was estimated to be 1.04-106 tonnes per annum at the nine sites. However, the CO2 emission for the construction of relevant facilities is not taken into account in this paper. The estimated CO2 mitigation is equivalent to about 0.9% of the required CO2 mitigation for Japan per annum under the Kyoto Protocol framework.