Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 33

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

33
10005914
A Comparative Analysis of Heuristics Applied to Collecting Used Lubricant Oils Generated in the City of Pereira, Colombia
Abstract:

Currently, in Colombia is arising a problem related to collecting used lubricant oils which are generated by the increment of the vehicle fleet. This situation does not allow a proper disposal of this type of waste, which in turn results in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, through the comparative analysis of various heuristics, the best solution to the VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) was selected by comparing costs and times for the collection of used lubricant oils in the city of Pereira, Colombia; since there is no presence of management companies engaged in the direct administration of the collection of this pollutant. To achieve this aim, six proposals of through methods of solution of two phases were discussed. First, the assignment of the group of generator points of the residue was made (previously identified). Proposals one and four of through methods are based on the closeness of points. The proposals two and five are using the scanning method and the proposals three and six are considering the restriction of the capacity of collection vehicle. Subsequently, the routes were developed - in the first three proposals by the Clarke and Wright's savings algorithm and in the following proposals by the Traveling Salesman optimization mathematical model. After applying techniques, a comparative analysis of the results was performed and it was determined which of the proposals presented the most optimal values in terms of the distance, cost and travel time.

32
10005948
An Intelligent Transportation System for Safety and Integrated Management of Railway Crossings
Abstract:

Railway crossings are complex entities whose optimal management cannot be addressed unless with the help of an intelligent transportation system integrating information both on train and vehicular flows. In this paper, we propose an integrated system named SIMPLE (Railway Safety and Infrastructure for Mobility applied at level crossings) that, while providing unparalleled safety in railway level crossings, collects data on rail and road traffic and provides value-added services to citizens and commuters. Such services include for example alerts, via variable message signs to drivers and suggestions for alternative routes, towards a more sustainable, eco-friendly and efficient urban mobility. To achieve these goals, SIMPLE is organized as a System of Systems (SoS), with a modular architecture whose components range from specially-designed radar sensors for obstacle detection to smart ETSI M2M-compliant camera networks for urban traffic monitoring. Computational unit for performing forecast according to adaptive models of train and vehicular traffic are also included. The proposed system has been tested and validated during an extensive trial held in the mid-sized Italian town of Montecatini, a paradigmatic case where the rail network is inextricably linked with the fabric of the city. Results of the tests are reported and discussed.

31
17333
The Cost Structure of Intermodal Transportation: The Chilean Case
Authors:
Abstract:

This study defines a methodology to compute unitary costs for freight transportation modes. The main objective was to gather relevant costs data to support the formulation and evaluation of railway, road, pipelines and port projects. This article will concentrate on the following steps: Compilation and analysis of relevant modal cost studies, Methodological adjustments to make cost figures comparable between studies, Definition of typology and scope of transportation modes, Analysis and validation of cost values for relevant freight transportation modes in Chile. In order to define the comparison methodology for the costs between the different transportation modes, it was necessary to consider that the relevant cost depends on who performs the comparison. Thus, for the transportation user (e.g. exporter) the pertinent costs are the mode tariffs, whereas from the operators perspective (e.g. rail manager), the pertinent costs are the operating costs of each mode.

30
16612
Towards Sustainable Urban Transportation Case Studies
Abstract:

Climate change is one of the greatest environmental, economic, and social challenges of our time. Urban transportation has had a major negative impact on our environment—most of our air pollution comes from transport. This paper explores ways to move toward a more sustainable transport system by focusing on creating a more efficient and livable city and improving the environmental efficiency of transport activity. The analytical study covers some international examples of applying sustainable transportation and uses them to suggest a frame work to develop the transportation system in Egypt to be sustainable and more intelligent.

29
5502
Optimization and GIS-Based Intelligent Decision Support System for Urban Transportation Systems Analysis
Abstract:
Optimization plays an important role in most real world applications that support decision makers to take the right decision regarding the strategic directions and operations of the system they manage. Solutions for traffic management and traffic congestion problems are considered major problems that most decision making authorities for cities around the world are looking for. This review paper gives a full description of the traffic problem as part of the transportation planning process and present a view as a framework of urban transportation system analysis where the core of the system is a transportation network equilibrium model that is based on optimization techniques and that can also be used for evaluating an alternative solution or a combination of alternative solutions for the traffic congestion. Different transportation network equilibrium models are reviewed from the sequential approach to the multiclass combining trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip assignment and departure time model. A GIS-Based intelligent decision support system framework for urban transportation system analysis is suggested for implementation where the selection of optimized alternative solutions, single or packages, will be based on an intelligent agent rather than human being which would lead to reduction in time, cost and the elimination of the difficulty, by human being, for finding the best solution to the traffic congestion problem.
28
5334
Impacts of Rail Transportation Projects on Urban Areas in Izmir-Turkey
Abstract:
With the development of technology, the growing trend of fast and safe passenger transport, air pollution, traffic congestion, increase in problems such as the increasing population and the high cost of private vehicle usage made many cities around the world with a population of more or less, start to build rail systems as a means of urban transport in order to ensure the economic and environmental sustainability and more efficient use of land in the city. The implementation phase of rail systems costs much more than other public transport systems. However, social and economic returns in the long term made these systems the most popular investment tool for planned and developing cities. In our country, the purpose, goals and policies of transportation plans are away from integrity, and the problems are not clearly detected. Also, not defined and incomplete assessment of transportation systems and insufficient financial analysis are the most important cause of failure. Rail systems and other transportation systems to be addressed as a whole is seen as the main factor in increasing efficiency in applications that are not integrated yet in our country to come to this point has led to the problem.
27
4401
Promoting Electric Vehicles for Sustainable Urban Transport: How to Do It This Time Right
Abstract:
In recent years various types of electric vehicles has gained again increasing attention as an environmentally benign technology in transport. Especially for urban areas with high local pollution this Zero-emission technology (at the point of use) is considered to provide proper solutions. Yet, the bad economics and the limited driving ranges are still major barriers for a broader market penetration of battery electric vehicles (BEV) and of fuel cell vehicles (FCV). The major result of our analyses is that the most important precondition for a further dissemination of BEV in urban areas are emission-free zones. This is an instrument which allows the promotion of BEV without providing excessive subsidies. In addition, it is important to note that the full benefits of EV can only be harvested if the electricity used is produced from renewable energy sources. That is to say, it has to be ensured that the use of BEV in urban areas is clearly linked to a green electricity purchase model. And moreover, the introduction of a CO2- emission-based tax system would support this requirement.
26
3330
Geomatics Techniques for Urban Transport Planning
Abstract:
The major urban centers are all facing rapid growth is most often associated with spreading urbanization, social status of the car has also changed: it has become a commodity of mass consumption. There are currently about 5 million and 260 cars in Algeria (2008), this number increases every year 200,000 new cars. These phenomena induce a demand for greater mobility and a significant need for transport infrastructure. Faced with these problems and development of the growing use of the automobile, central governments and local authorities in charge of urban transport issues are aware of the need to develop their urban transport systems but often lack opportunities. Urban Transport Plans (PDU) were born in reaction to the "culture of automobile." Their existence in the world the '80s, however, they had little success before laws on air and rational use of energy in 90 years does not alter substantially their content and make mandatory their implementation in cities of over 100,000 inhabitants (Abroad) [1]. The objective of this work is to use the tool and specifically Geomatics techniques as decision support in the organization and management of travel while taking into consideration the influence, which will then translate by National Urban Transport Plan.
25
2252
Recent Developments in Electric Vehicles for Passenger Car Transport
Abstract:
Electric vehicles are considered as technology which can significantly reduce the problems related to road transport such as increasing GHG emissions, air pollutions and energy import dependency. The core objective of this paper is to analyze the current energetic, ecological and economic characteristics of different types of electric vehicles. The major conclusions of this analysis are: The high investments cost are the major barrier for broad market breakthrough of battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. For battery electric vehicles also the limited driving range states a key obstacle. The analyzed hybrids could in principle serve as a bridging technology. However, due to their tank-to-wheel emissions they cannot state a proper solution for urban areas. Finally, the most important perception is that also battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles are environmentally benign solution if the primary fuel source is renewable.
24
12351
Security in Crosswalks
Abstract:
Lighting is not only important for the safety of traffic, but also it is very important for the protection of pedestrians. Improvement on visibility in a long distance, lighting, signing, reduces considerably the risk of accidents in crosswalks. This paper evaluates different aspects of crosswalks including signing and lighting to improve road safety.
23
719
How to Build and Evaluate a Solution Method: An Illustration for the Vehicle Routing Problem
Abstract:

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a famous combinatorial optimization problem. Because of its well-known difficulty, metaheuristics are the most appropriate methods to tackle large and realistic instances. The goal of this paper is to highlight the key ideas for designing VRP metaheuristics according to the following criteria: efficiency, speed, robustness, and ability to take advantage of the problem structure. Such elements can obviously be used to build solution methods for other combinatorial optimization problems, at least in the deterministic field.

22
5199
Applying Tabu Search Algorithm in Public Transport: A Case Study for University Students in Mauritius
Abstract:
In this paper, the Tabu search algorithm is used to solve a transportation problem which consists of determining the shortest routes with the appropriate vehicle capacity to facilitate the travel of the students attending the University of Mauritius. The aim of this work is to minimize the total cost of the distance travelled by the vehicles in serving all the customers. An initial solution is obtained by the TOUR algorithm which basically constructs a giant tour containing all the customers and partitions it in an optimal way so as to produce a set of feasible routes. The Tabu search algorithm then makes use of a search procedure, a swapping procedure and the intensification and diversification mechanism to find the best set of feasible routes.
21
2349
Context Aware Navigation System for Using Public Transport on Smartphone
Abstract:

Recently, many web services to provide information for public transport are developed and released. They are optimized for mobile devices such a smartphone. We are also developing better path planning system for route buses and trains called “Bus-Net"[1]. However these systems only provide paths and related information before the user start moving. So we propose a context aware navigation to change the way to support public transport users. If we go to somewhere using many kinds of public transport, we have to know how to use them. In addition, public transport is dynamic system, and these have different characteristic by type. So we need information at real-time. Therefore we suggest the system that can support on user-s state. It has a variety of ways to help public transport users by each state, like turn-by-turn navigation. Context aware navigation will be able to reduce anxiety for using public transport.

20
2578
Possibilistic Clustering Technique-Based Traffic Light Control for Handling Emergency Vehicle
Abstract:

A traffic light gives security from traffic congestion,reducing the traffic jam, and organizing the traffic flow. Furthermore,increasing congestion level in public road networks is a growingproblem in many countries. Using Intelligent Transportation Systemsto provide emergency vehicles a green light at intersections canreduce driver confusion, reduce conflicts, and improve emergencyresponse times. Nowadays, the technology of wireless sensornetworks can solve many problems and can offer a good managementof the crossroad. In this paper, we develop a new approach based onthe technique of clustering and the graphical possibilistic fusionmodeling. So, the proposed model is elaborated in three phases. Thefirst one consists to decompose the environment into clusters,following by the fusion intra and inter clusters processes. Finally, wewill show some experimental results by simulation that proves theefficiency of our proposed approach.KeywordsTraffic light, Wireless sensor network, Controller,Possibilistic network/Bayesain network.

19
9095
Walking and Sustainable Urban Transportation
Abstract:
Walking as a type of non-motorized transportation has various social, economical and environmental privileges. Also, today different aspects of sustainable development have been emphasized and promotion of sustainable transportation modes has been considered according to this approach. Therefore, the objective of this research is exploring the circumstance of relationship between walking and sustainable urban transportation.For writing this article, the most important resources related to the traits of walking have been surveyed via a documentary method and after explaining the concept of sustainable transportation and its indicators, benefiting from the viewpoints of transportation experts of Tehran, as the capital and greatest city of Iran, different modes of urban transportation have been compared in proportion to each criterion and to each other and have been analyzed according to AHP method. The results of this study indicate that walking is the most sustainable mode of inner city transportation.
18
5667
An Evaluation Framework of Transportation Responsiveness: Case of Pattaya City
Abstract:
Transportation is one of the main activities related to creating value for the tourists. Transport management in tourism mainly focuses on managing transfer points and vehicle capacity. However, transport service level must also be ensured as it now relates to tourist-s experiences. This paper emphasizes on the responsiveness as one of key service performance measures. An evaluation framework is developed and illustarted by using the case of small bus service in Pattaya city. It can be seen as a great potential for the city to utilize the small bus transportation in order to meet the needs of more diverse group of passengers and to support the expansion of tourist areas. The framework integrates with service operations management, logistics, and tourism behavior perspectives. The findings from the investigation of existing small bus service are presented and preliminarily validate the usability of the framework.
17
4056
Sustainable Urban Transport Management and Its Strategies
Abstract:
Rapid process of urbanism development has increased the demand for some infrastructures such as supplying potable water, electricity network and transportation facilities and etc. Nonefficiency of the existing system with parallel managements of urban traffic management has increased the gap between supply and demand of traffic facilities. A sustainable transport system requires some activities more important than air pollution control, traffic or fuel consumption reduction and the studies show that there is no unique solution for solving complicated transportation problems and solving such a problem needs a comprehensive, dynamic and reliable mechanism. Sustainable transport management considers the effects of transportation development on economic efficiency, environmental issues, resources consumption, land use and social justice and helps reduction of environmental effects, increase of transportation system efficiency as well as improvement of social life and aims to enhance efficiency, goods transportation, provide services with minimum access problems that cannot be realized without reorganization of strategies, policies and plans.
16
451
The Adoption of Halal Transportations Technologies for Halal Logistics Service Providers in Malaysia
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is i) to investigate the driving factors and barriers of the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Halal logistic and ii) to develop an ICT adoption framework for Halal logistic service provider. The Halal LSPs selected for the study currently used ICT service platforms, such as accounting and management system for Halal logistic business. The study categorizes the factors influencing the adoption decision and process by LSPs into four groups: technology related factors, organizational and environmental factors, Halal assurance related factors, and government related factors. The major contribution in this study is the discovery that technology related factors (ICT compatibility with Halal requirement) and Halal assurance related factors are the most crucial factors among the Halal LSPs applying ICT for Halal control in transportation-s operation. Among the government related factors, ICT requirement for monitoring Halal included in Halal Logistic Standard on Transportation (MS2400:2010) are the most influencing factors in the adoption of ICT with the support of the government. In addition, the government related factors are very important in the reducing the main barriers and the creation of the atmosphere of ICT adoption in Halal LSP sector.

15
1064
Particle Swarm Optimization Based Genetic Algorithm for Two-Stage Transportation Supply Chain
Abstract:
Supply chain consists of all stages involved, directly or indirectly, includes all functions involved in fulfilling a customer demand. In two stage transportation supply chain problem, transportation costs are of a significant proportion of final product costs. It is often crucial for successful decisions making approaches in two stage supply chain to explicit account for non-linear transportation costs. In this paper, deterministic demand and finite supply of products was considered. The optimized distribution level and the routing structure from the manufacturing plants to the distribution centres and to the end customers is determined using developed mathematical model and solved by proposed particle swarm optimization based genetic algorithm. Numerical analysis of the case study is carried out to validate the model.
14
8458
Research on the Influence of Emotional Labor Strategy used by Public Transportation Employee on Service Satisfaction
Abstract:

The aim of the research is to understand whether the accuracy of customer detection of employee emotional labor strategy would influence the overall service satisfaction. From path analysis, it was found that employee-s positive emotions positively influenced service quality. Service quality in turn influenced Customer detection of employee emotional deep action strategy and Customer detection of employee emotional surface action strategy. Lastly, Customer detection of employee emotional deep action strategy and Customer detection of employee emotional surface action strategy positively influenced service satisfaction. Based on the analysis results, suggestions are proposed to provide reference for human resource management and use in relative fields.

13
7447
Suggestions for the Improvement of the Quality of Public Transportation Service in Campos,Brazil
Abstract:
In this paper the main objective is to analyze the quality of service of the bus companies operating in the city of Campos, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This analysis, based on the opinion of the bus customers, will help to determine their degree of satisfaction with the service provided by the bus companies. The result of this assessment shows that the bus customers are displeased with the quality of service supplied by the bus companies. Therefore, it is necessary to identify alternative solutions to minimize the consequences of the main problems related to customers- dissatisfaction identified in our evaluation and to help the bus companies operating in Campos better fulfill their riders- needs.
12
1222
A Basic Study on Ubiquitous Overloaded Vehicles Regulation System
Abstract:
Load managing method on road became necessary since overloaded vehicles occur damage on road facilities and existing systems for preventing this damage still show many problems.Accordingly, efficient managing system for preventing overloaded vehicles could be organized by using the road itself as a scale by applying genetic algorithm to analyze the load and the drive information of vehicles.Therefore, this paper organized Ubiquitous sensor network system for development of intelligent overload vehicle regulation system, also in this study, to use the behavior of road, the transformation was measured by installing underground box type indoor model and indoor experiment was held using genetic algorithm. And we examined wireless possibility of overloaded vehicle regulation system through experiment of the transmission and reception distance.If this system will apply to road and bridge, might be effective for economy and convenience through establishment of U-IT system..
11
7524
Pollution Control and Sustainable Urban Transport System - Electric Vehicle
Abstract:
Recently electric vehicles are becoming popular as an alternative of conventional fossil fuel vehicles. Conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicle uses fossil fuel which contributing a major part of overall carbon emission in the environment. Carbon and other green house gas emission are responsible for global warming and resulting climate change. It becomes vital to evaluate performance of vehicle based on emission. In this paper an effort has been made to depict the picture of emission caused by vehicle and scenario of Australia has taken into account. Effort has been made to compare the fossil based vehicle with electric vehicle in phases. The study also evaluates advancement in electric vehicle technology, required infrastructure for sustainability and future scope of developments. This paper also includes the evaluation of electric vehicle concept for pollution control and sustainable transport systems in future. This study can be a benchmark for development of electric vehicle as low carbon emission alternative for the cities of tomorrow.
10
4937
The Relationship between Spatial Planning and Transportation Planning in Southern Africa and its Consequences for Human Settlement
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper reviews the relationship between spatial and transportation planning in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region of Sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that most urbanisation in the region has largely occurred subsequent to the 1950s and, accordingly, urban development has been profoundly and negatively affected by the (misguided) spatial and institutional tenets of modernism. It demonstrates how a considerable amount of the poor performance of these settlements can be directly attributed to this. Two factors in particular about the planning systems are emphasized: the way in which programmatic land-use planning lies at the heart of both spatial and transportation planning; and the way on which transportation and spatial planning have been separated into independent processes. In the final section, the paper identifies ways of improving the planning system. Firstly, it identifies the performance qualities which Southern African settlements should be seeking to achieve. Secondly, it focuses on two necessary arenas of change: the need to replace programmatic land-use planning practices with structuralspatial approaches; and it makes a case for making urban corridors a spatial focus of integrated planning, as a way of beginning the restructuring and intensification of settlements which are currently characterised by sprawl, fragmentation and separation
9
3132
The Optimization of an Intelligent Traffic Congestion Level Classification from Motorists- Judgments on Vehicle's Moving Patterns
Abstract:
We proposed a technique to identify road traffic congestion levels from velocity of mobile sensors with high accuracy and consistent with motorists- judgments. The data collection utilized a GPS device, a webcam, and an opinion survey. Human perceptions were used to rate the traffic congestion levels into three levels: light, heavy, and jam. Then the ratings and velocity were fed into a decision tree learning model (J48). We successfully extracted vehicle movement patterns to feed into the learning model using a sliding windows technique. The parameters capturing the vehicle moving patterns and the windows size were heuristically optimized. The model achieved accuracy as high as 99.68%. By implementing the model on the existing traffic report systems, the reports will cover comprehensive areas. The proposed method can be applied to any parts of the world.
8
2141
Investigation and Comparison of Energy Intensity in Iranian Transportation Industry (Case Study Road Transportation Sector)
Abstract:
Energy intensity(energy consumption intensity) is a global index which computes the required energy for producing a specific value of goods and services in each country. It is computed in terms of initial energy supply or final energy consumption. In this study (research) Divisia method is used to decompose energy consumption and energy intensity. This method decomposes consumption and energy intensity to production effects, structural and net intensity and could be done as time series or two-periodical. This study analytically investigates consumption changes and energy intensity on economical sectors of Iran and more specific on road transportation(rail road and road).Our results show that the contribution of structural effect (change in economical activities combination) is very low and the effect of net energy consumption has the higher contribution in consumption changes and energy intensity. In other words, the high consumption of energy is due to Intensity of energy consumption and is not to structural effect of transportation sector.
7
701
Vehicle Velocity Estimation for Traffic Surveillance System
Abstract:

This paper describes an algorithm to estimate realtime vehicle velocity using image processing technique from the known camera calibration parameters. The presented algorithm involves several main steps. First, the moving object is extracted by utilizing frame differencing technique. Second, the object tracking method is applied and the speed is estimated based on the displacement of the object-s centroid. Several assumptions are listed to simplify the transformation of 2D images from 3D real-world images. The results obtained from the experiment have been compared to the estimated ground truth. From this experiment, it exhibits that the proposed algorithm has achieved the velocity accuracy estimation of about ± 1.7 km/h.

6
7075
Vehicle Position Estimation for Driver Assistance System
Abstract:
We present a system that finds road boundaries and constructs the virtual lane based on fusion data from a laser and a monocular sensor, and detects forward vehicle position even in no lane markers or bad environmental conditions. When the road environment is dark or a lot of vehicles are parked on the both sides of the road, it is difficult to detect lane and road boundary. For this reason we use fusion of laser and vision sensor to extract road boundary to acquire three dimensional data. We use parabolic road model to calculate road boundaries which is based on vehicle and sensors state parameters and construct virtual lane. And then we distinguish vehicle position in each lane.
5
3726
Effective Density for the Classification of Transport Activity Centers
Abstract:
This research work takes a different approach in the discussion of urban form impacts on transport planning and auto dependency. Concentrated density represented by effective density explains auto dependency better than the conventional density and it is proved to be a realistic density representative for the urban transportation analysis. Model analysis reveals that effective density is influenced by the shopping accessibility index as well as job density factor. It is also combined with the job access variable to classify four levels of Transport Activity Centers (TACs) in Okinawa, Japan. Trip attraction capacity and levels of the newly classified TACs was found agreeable with the amount of daily trips attracted to each center. The trip attraction data set was drawn from a 2007 Okinawa personal trip survey. This research suggests a planning methodology which guides logical transport supply routes and concentrated local development schemes.
4
3143
Capacity Building for Hazmat Transport Emergency Preparedness: 'Hotspot Impact Zone' Mapping from Flammable and Toxic Releases
Abstract:
Hazardous Material transportation by road is coupled with inherent risk of accidents causing loss of lives, grievous injuries, property losses and environmental damages. The most common type of hazmat road accident happens to be the releases (78%) of hazardous substances, followed by fires (28%), explosions (14%) and vapour/ gas clouds (6 %.). The paper is discussing initially the probable 'Impact Zones' likely to be caused by one flammable (LPG) and one toxic (ethylene oxide) chemicals being transported through a sizable segment of a State Highway connecting three notified Industrial zones in Surat district in Western India housing 26 MAH industrial units. Three 'hotspots' were identified along the highway segment depending on the particular chemical traffic and the population distribution within 500 meters on either sides. The thermal radiation and explosion overpressure have been calculated for LPG / Ethylene Oxide BLEVE scenarios along with toxic release scenario for ethylene oxide. Besides, the dispersion calculations for ethylene oxide toxic release have been made for each 'hotspot' location and the impact zones have been mapped for the LOC concentrations. Subsequently, the maximum Initial Isolation and the protective zones were calculated based on ERPG-3 and ERPG-2 values of ethylene oxide respectively which are estimated taking the worst case scenario under worst weather conditions. The data analysis will be helpful to the local administration in capacity building with respect to rescue / evacuation and medical preparedness and quantitative inputs to augment the District Offsite Emergency Plan document.
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