{
"title": "Surface Thermodynamics Approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-TB) \u2013 Human Sputum Interactions",
"authors": "J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, S. N. Omenyi",
"country": "Nigeria",
"institution": "Nnamdi Azikiwe University",
"volume": "108",
"journal": "International Journal of Medical, Health, Biomedical, Bioengineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering",
"pagesStart": 835,
"pagesEnd": 844,
"ISSN": "1307-6892",
"URL": "http:\/\/waset.org\/publications\/10003048",
"abstract": "This research work presents the surface\r\nthermodynamics approach to M-TB\/HIV-Human sputum\r\ninteractions. This involved the use of the Hamaker coefficient\r\nconcept as a surface energetics tool in determining the interaction\r\nprocesses, with the surface interfacial energies explained using van\r\nder Waals concept of particle interactions. The Lifshitz derivation for\r\nvan der Waals forces was applied as an alternative to the contact\r\nangle approach which has been widely used in other biological\r\nsystems. The methodology involved taking sputum samples from\r\ntwenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for\r\nabsorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible\r\nSpectrophotometer. The variables required for the computations with\r\nthe Lifshitz formula were derived from the absorbance data. The\r\nMatlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the\r\ndata produced from the experiments (absorbance values). The\r\nHamaker constants and the combined Hamaker coefficients were\r\nobtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the\r\nLifshitz Equation. The absolute combined Hamaker coefficients\r\nA132abs and A131abs on both infected and uninfected sputum samples\r\ngave the values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule for M-TB infected\r\nsputum and \u00c3132abs = 0.18825x10-21Joule for M-TB\/HIV infected\r\nsputum. The significance of this result is the positive value of the\r\nabsolute combined Hamaker coefficient which suggests the existence\r\nof net positive van der waals forces demonstrating an attraction\r\nbetween the bacteria and the macrophage. This however, implies that\r\ninfection can occur. It was also shown that in the presence of HIV,\r\nthe interaction energy is reduced by 13% conforming adverse effects\r\nobserved in HIV patients suffering from tuberculosis.",
"references": null,
"publisher": "World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology",
"index": "International Science Index 108, 2015"
}