Open Science Research Excellence
%0 Journal Article
%A El Harbi Sana and  Ben Afia Neila
%D 2016 
%J  International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
%I International Science Index 112, 2016
%T The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment
%V 112
%X In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.
%P 1059 - 1064