Open Science Research Excellence
%0 Journal Article
%A E. Seidi
%D 2012 
%J  International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering
%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
%I International Science Index 72, 2012
%T Effects of Geometry of Disk Openers on Seed Slot Properties
%V 72
%X Offset Double-Disk Opener (DDO) is a popular
furrow opener in conservation tillage. It has some limitations such as
negative suction to penetrate in the soil, hair pinning and mixing seed
and fertilizer in the slot. Because of importance of separation of seed
and fertilizer in the slot, by adding two horizontal mini disks to DDO
a modified opener was made (MDO) which placed the fertilizer
between and under two rows of seed. To consider performance of
novel opener an indoor comparison test between DDO and MDO was
performed at soil bin. The experiment was conducted with three
working speeds (3, 6 and 8 km h-1), two bulk densities of soil (1.1
and 1.4 Mg m-3) and two levels of residues (1 and 2 ton ha-1). The
experimental design consisted in a (3×2×2) complete randomized
factorial with three replicates for each test. Moisture of seed furrow,
separation of seed and fertilizer, hair pinning and resultant forces
acting on the openers were used as assessing indexes. There was no
significant difference between soil moisture content in slots created
by DDO and MDO at 0-4 cm depth, but at 4-8 cm the in the slot
created by MDO moisture content was higher about 9%. Horizontal
force for both openers increased with increasing speed and soil bulk
density. Vertical force for DDO was negative so it needed additional
weight for penetrating in the soil, but vertical force for MDO was
positive and, which can solve the challenge of penetration in the soil
in DDO. In soft soil with heavy residues some trash was pushed by
DDO into seed furrow (hair pinning) but at MDO seed were placed at
clean groove. Lateral and vertical separation of seed and fertilizer
was performed effectively by MDO (4.5 and 5 cm, respectively)
while DDO put seed and fertilizer close to each other. Overall, the
Modified Offset Double-disks (MDO) had better performance. So by
adapting this opener with no-tillage drillers it would possible to have
higher yield in conservation tillage where the most appropriate
opener is disk type.
%P 1056 - 1060