Open Science Research Excellence
%0 Journal Article
%A Ragi Poyyara and  Vijaya Patnana and  Mohammed Alam
%D 2014 
%J  International Journal of Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering
%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
%I International Science Index 93, 2014
%T Optimization of Acid Treatments by Assessing Diversion Strategies in Carbonate and Sandstone Formations
%V 93
%X When acid is pumped into damaged reservoirs for
damage removal/stimulation, distorted inflow of acid into the
formation occurs caused by acid preferentially traveling into highly
permeable regions over low permeable regions, or (in general) into
the path of least resistance. This can lead to poor zonal coverage and
hence warrants diversion to carry out an effective placement of acid.
Diversion is desirably a reversible technique of temporarily reducing
the permeability of high perm zones, thereby forcing the acid into
lower perm zones.
The uniqueness of each reservoir can pose several challenges to
engineers attempting to devise optimum and effective diversion
strategies. Diversion techniques include mechanical placement and/or
chemical diversion of treatment fluids, further sub-classified into ball
sealers, bridge plugs, packers, particulate diverters, viscous gels,
crosslinked gels, relative permeability modifiers (RPMs), foams,
and/or the use of placement techniques, such as coiled tubing (CT)
and the maximum pressure difference and injection rate (MAPDIR)
It is not always realized that the effectiveness of diverters greatly
depends on reservoir properties, such as formation type, temperature,
reservoir permeability, heterogeneity, and physical well
characteristics (e.g., completion type, well deviation, length of
treatment interval, multiple intervals, etc.). This paper reviews the
mechanisms by which each variety of diverter functions and
discusses the effect of various reservoir properties on the efficiency
of diversion techniques. Guidelines are recommended to help
enhance productivity from zones of interest by choosing the best
methods of diversion while pumping an optimized amount of
treatment fluid. The success of an overall acid treatment often
depends on the effectiveness of the diverting agents.

%P 979 - 984