Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index


Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
10004415
Achieving Sustainable Development through Transformative Pedagogies in Universities
Abstract:
Developing a responsible personal worldview is central to sustainable development, but achieving quality education to promote transformative learning for sustainability is thus far, poorly understood. Most programs involving education for sustainable development rely on changing behavior, rather than attitudes. The emphasis is on the scientific and utilitarian aspect of sustainability with negligible importance on the intrinsic value of nature. Campus sustainability projects include building sustainable gardens and implementing energy-efficient upgrades, instead of focusing on educating for sustainable development through exploration of students’ values and beliefs. Even though green technology adoption maybe the right thing to do, most schools are not targeting the root cause of the environmental crisis; they are just providing palliative measures. This study explores the under-examined factors that lead to pro-environmental behavior by investigating the environmental perceptions of both college business students and personnel of green organizations. A mixed research approach of qualitative, based on structured interviews, and quantitative instruments was developed including 30 college-level students’ interviews and 40 green organization staff members involved in sustainable activities. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Categorization of the responses to the open‐ended questions was conducted with the purpose of identifying the main types of factors influencing attitudes and correlating with behaviors. Overall the findings of this study indicated a lack of appreciation for nature, and inability to understand interconnectedness and apply critical thinking. The results of the survey conducted on undergraduate students indicated that the responses of business and liberal arts students by independent t-test were significantly different, with a p‐value of 0.03. While liberal arts students showed an understanding of human interdependence with nature and its delicate balance, business students seemed to believe that humans were meant to rule over the rest of nature. This result was quite intriguing from the perspective that business students will be defining markets, influencing society, controlling and managing businesses that supposedly, in the face of climate change, shall implement sustainable activities. These alarming results led to the focus on green businesses in order to better understand their motivation to engage in sustainable activities. Additionally, a probit model revealed that childhood exposure to nature has a significantly positive impact in pro-environmental attitudes to most of the New Ecological Paradigm scales. Based on these findings, this paper discusses educators including Socrates, John Dewey and Paulo Freire in the implementation of eco-pedagogy and transformative learning following a curriculum with emphasis on critical and systems thinking, which are deemed to be key ingredients in quality education for sustainable development.

References:

[1] Simon, Julian. (1996), The Ultimate Resource. Princeton University Press.
[2] Klasen, S., Lawson, D., (2007) The impact of Population Growth on Economic Growth and poverty reduction in Uganda.
[3] Becker, G.S., Lewis, H.G. (1974), Interaction between Quantity and Quality of Children, University of Chicago Press.
[4] UN Report, (2015), “The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015”, http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf
[5] Gaston, K.J, Fuller, R.A., (2007), Biodiversity and Extinction: Losing the Common and the Widespread, Progress in Physical Geography 31(2), 2007 pp. 213-225.
[6] Lewinsohn, E., Gijzen, M. Plant Science 176 (2009) 161–169, Phytochemical diversity: The sounds of silent metabolism.
[7] Garden Drum (2015), “is your love of double flowers hurting pollinators?”, July 31, 2015 retrieved from http://gardendrum.com/2015/07/31/is-our-love-of-double-flowers-hurting-pollinators/
[8] Will Steffen, Paul J. Crutzen and John R. McNeill, The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature? Ambio Vol. 36, No. 8, December 2007, https://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/public-events/archiv/alter-net/former-ss/2007/05-09.2007/steffen/literature/ambi-36-08-06_614_621.pdf
[9] Ellis, E. 2011. The Planet of No Return: Human Resilience on an Artificial Earth. The Breakthrough Journal no.2 (Fall 2001) pages 37- 44. Read Online: http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/journal/past-issues/issue-2/the-planetof-no-return/
[10] Ecological Society of America (2012), http://www.esa.org/esa/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/hypoxia.pdf
[11] Alan R Townsend , Robert W Howarth , Fakhri A Bazzaz , Mary S Booth , Cory C Cleveland , Sharon K Collinge , Andrew P Dobson , Paul R Epstein , Elisabeth A Holland , Dennis R Keeney , Michael A Mallin, Christine A Rogers1 Peter Wayne, and Amir H Wolfe, (2003), Human health effects of a changing global nitrogen cycle, Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.680.221&rep=rep1&type=pdf
[12] Kopnina, H., Meijers, F. and Lengelle, R., Environmental Identity and Natural Resources: A Dialogical Learning Process, Resources 2016, 5, 11; doi:10.3390/resources5010011, file:///C:/Users/allevate/Downloads/Environmental_Identity_and_Natural_Resou.pdf
[13] Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice, http://cmapsconverted.ihmc.us/rid=1MCY1CBS9-W00F4X-15W8/Transformative-Learning-Mezirow-1997.pdf
[14] Dewey, John. 1966. Democracy and Education (1916). New York: Macmillan., p.50
[15] Paulo Freire and Donaldo Macedo, "Literacy: Reading the Word and the World" (Amherst, Massachusetts: Bergin and Garvey, 1987). https://resources.oncourse.iu.edu/access/content/user/mikuleck/Filemanager_Public_Files/L501/Unit%201%20Definitions/Freire%201998.pdf
[16] Max-Neef, M. (2010), Chilean Economist Manfred Max-Neef: US Is Becoming an "Underdeveloping Nation", http://www.democracynow.org/2010/9/22/chilean_economist_manfred_max_neef_us
[17] Brundtland, G. H., Oslo (20 March 1987), Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf
[18] Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). “Designing and conducting mixed methods research”. P.39 (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[19] Mason, M. (2010). “Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews”. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3). Retrieved at Feb 15, 2014 from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1428/3027
[20] Creswell, J. W., (2003), RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative. and Mixed Methods Approaches SECOND EDITION John W. Creswell University of Nebraska, Lincoln, p.18, http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1334586.files/2003_Creswell_A%20Framework%20for%20Design.pdf
[21] Dalai Lama (2014), Why Was the Dalai Lama Hanging Out with the Right-Wing American Enterprise Institute? http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2014/02/dalai-lama-american-enterprise-institute
[22] Hofmeister, A., Kata Kelemen,K. , Marianna Piskóti, M., Simay, A. E., (2012), “Examining the Differences Between the Environmentally Conscious Consumer Behavior in China and Hungary” Corvinus University of Budapest, http://korny.uni-corvinus.hu/cneucoop_fullpapers/s1/agneshofm1.pdf
[23] Erdogan, N., (2009), “Testing the new ecological paradigm scale: Turkish case” African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (10), pp. 1023-1031, October, 2009, http://academicjournals.org/article/article1380883767_Erdogan%202.pdf
[24] Kaltenborn, B.P., Bjerke, T. and Strumse, E., (1998), “Diverging Attitudes Towards Predators: Do Environmental Beliefs Play a Part?”, Human Ecology Review, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1998, http://humanecologyreview.org/pastissues/her52/52kaltenbornetal.pdf
[25] Riley E. Dunlap, R.E., Liere,K.D.V., Mertig,A.G., Jones,R.E., (2000), “Measuring Endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm: A Revised NEP Scale”, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2000, pp. 425–442, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.397.3294&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007