Explosions may cause intensive damage to buildings
and sometimes lead to total and progressive destruction. Pressures
induced by explosions are one of the most destructive loads a
structure may experience. While designing structures for great
explosions may be expensive and impractical, engineers are looking
for methods for preventing destructions resulted from explosions. A
favorable structural system is a system which does not disrupt totally
due to local explosion, since such structures sustain less loss in
comparison with structural ones which really bear the load and
suddenly disrupt. Designing and establishing vital and necessary
installations in a way that it is resistant against direct hit of bomb and
rocket is not practical, economical, or expedient in many cases,
because the cost of construction and installation with such
specifications is several times more than the total cost of the related
 W.E Baker, "A Manual for the Prediction of Blast and Fragment
Loading on Structures", Report No. DOE/ TIC-I 1268, U.S. Department
of, Energy , Albuqueroe Operations Office, Amarillo area office,Pantex
plant, Amarillo, Texas ,1980.
 J.M Duncan, Evans, LT, Phillip, S.K. Ooi. , "Lateral Load Analysis of
Single Piles and Drilled Shafts", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical
Engineering, 1994, Vol. 120, No.6, pp. 1018-1033.
 M Ettouney, TRittenhouse , "Blast Resistant Design of Commercial
Buildings", Practice Periodical in Structural Design and Construction;
1996 Vol. I, pp.31-39.
 B , Woodson Expiratory pharyngeal airway obstruction during sleep: a
multiple element model. Laryn- goscope 113, 2003 , 1450-1459.
 P.A ,Mendis, T , Ngo, "Assessment of tall buildings under blast loading
and aircraft impact", Toward a better Built Environment, Innovation,
Sustainability and Information Technology, International Association of
Bridge and Structural Engineering, Australia, pp. 375-376, 2002.
 T , Paulay, MJ.N Pristley, "Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and
Masonry Buildings", John Wiley and Sons, Inc, N.Y. I 992
 D.O ,Baker,. M.G Whitney, "Design of Blast Hardened Control Rooms",
Structures under Shock and Impact, Proc. of the second International
Conference, Portmouth, U.K., 16-18th June, Edited Bulson, B.S. 1992