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10009985
Comics as Third Space: An Analysis of the Continuous Negotiation of Identities in Postcolonial Philippines
Abstract:
Comics in the Philippines has taken on many uses for the Filipino people. They have been sources of entertainment, education, and political and social commentaries. History has been witnessed to the rise and fall of Philippine comics but the 21st century is seeing a revival of the medium and the industry. It is within this context that an inquiry about Filipino identity is situated. Employing the analytical framework of postcolonialism, particularly Homi K. Bhabha’s concepts of Hybridity and the Third Space, this study analyzes three contemporary Philippine comics, Trese, Filipino Heroes League, and Dead Balagtas. The study was able to draw three themes that represent how Filipinos inhabit hybrid worlds and hybridized identities. First, the third space emerged through the use of hybrid worlds in the comics. Second, (re)imagined communities are established through the use of intertextual signifiers. Third, (re)negotiated identities are expressed through visual and narrative devices such as the use of Philippine mythology, historical and contemporary contexts, and language. In conclusion, comics can be considered as Third Space where these identities have the agency and opportunity to be expressed and represented.
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References:

[1] Joyce L. Arriola, “Pelikulang Komiks: Toward a Theory of Filipino Film Adaptation,” Kritika Kultura, vol. 30, pp. 322-374, 2018.
[2] Soledad S. Reyes, “The Komiks and Retelling the Lore of the Folk,” Philippine Studies, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 389-417, 2009.
[3] John A. Lent, Asian Comics. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2015, pp. 187-205.
[4] Herbeth L. Fondevilla, “Contemplating the Identity of Manga in the Philippines,” International Journal of Comic Art, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 441-453, Fall 2007.
[5] Gerry Alanguilan, “The State of Comics Preservation in the Philippines,” The Comics Journal, 2010, accessed at http://classic.tcj.com/international/the-state-of-comics-preservation-in-the-philippines/.
[6] Emil M. Flores, “Culture Crash: Filipino Komiks and the Quest for Cultural Legitimacy,” Journal of English Studies and Comparative Literature, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 46-58, 2004.
[7] Budjette Tan and Kajo Baldisimo, Trese Series. Pasay City: Visprint, Inc., 2007-2014.
[8] Paolo Fabregas, The Filipino Heroes League Volume 1 & 2. Pasay City: Visprint, Inc., 2009-2013.
[9] Emiliana Kampilan, Dead Balagtas Tomo 1: Mga Sayaw ng Dagat at Lupa. Quezon City: Anino Comics, 2017.
[10] Nasrullah Mambrol, “Homi Bhabha’s Concept of Hybridity,” Literary Theory and Criticism Notes, 2016, accessed at https://literariness.org/2016/04/08/homi-bhabhas-concept-of-hybridity/.
[11] Homi K. Bhabha, The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge, 1994, p. 37.
[12] Christopher Baker, The Hybrid Church in the City: Third Space Thinking. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007, p. 17.
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