Scholarly Research Excellence

Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29050

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test
In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] T. Iwasaki, F. Tatsuka, and Y. Takagi, “Shear moduli of sands under cyclic torsional shear loading.,” Soils and Foundations, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 39–56, Mar. 1978.
[2] M. B. Darendeli and M. Baris, “Development of a new family of normalized modulus reduction and material damping curves,” 2001.
[3] F. Menq and Farn-yuh, “Dynamic properties of sandy and gravelly soils,” 2003.
[4] D. G. Anderson and F. E. Richart, “Effects of straining on shear modulus of clay,” Journal of The Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 975–987, 1976.
[5] T. Kokusho, “Cyclic triaxial test of dynamic soil properties for wide strain range.,” Soils and Foundations, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 45–60, Jun. 1980.
[6] P. Kallioglou, T. Tika, and K. Pitilakis, “Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Cohesive Soils,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 879–913, Aug. 2008.
[7] G. X. Wang and J. Kuwano, “Shear Modulus and Damping of Clayey Sands,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 271–285, Apr. 1999.
[8] Y. Zhou and Y. Chen, “Influence of seismic cyclic loading history on small strain shear modulus of saturated sands,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 341–353, Jul. 2005.
[9] J.-U. Youn, Y.-W. Choo, and D.-S. Kim, “Measurement of small-strain shear modulus G max of dry and saturated sands by bender element, resonant column, and torsional shear tests,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1426–1438, Oct. 2008.
[10] T. Wichtmann and T. Triantafyllidis, “Influence of the Grain-Size Distribution Curve of Quartz Sand on the Small Strain Shear Modulus Gmax,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 135, no. 10, pp. 1404–1418, Oct. 2009.
[11] S. Shibuya, S. C. Hwang, and T. Mitachi, “Elastic shear modulus of soft clays from shear wave velocity measurement,” Géotechnique, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 593–601, Jun. 1997.
[12] R. Chaney, K. Demars, V. Jovičić, and M. Coop, “The Measurement of Stiffness Anisotropy in Clays with Bender Element Tests in the Triaxial Apparatus,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 3, 1998.
[13] M. Santagata, J. T. Germaine, and C. C. Ladd, “Factors Affecting the Initial Stiffness of Cohesive Soils,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 430–441, Apr. 2005.
[14] M. Santagata, J. T. Germaine, and C. C. Ladd, “Small-Strain Nonlinearity of Normally Consolidated Clay,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 72–82, Jan. 2007.
[15] T. Iwasaki and F. Tatsuoka, “Effects of grain size and grading on dynamic shear moduli of sands.,” Soils and Foundations, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 19–35, Sep. 1977.
[16] T. Wichtmann, M. A. Navarrete Hernandez, and T. Triantafyllidis, “On the influence of a non-cohesive fines content on small strain stiffness, modulus degradation and damping of quartz sand,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 69, no. i, pp. 103–114, Feb. 2015.
[17] R. Salgado, P. Bandini, and A. Karim, “Shear Strength and Stiffness of Silty Sand,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 451–462, May 2000.
[18] J. A. H. Carraro, M. Prezzi, and R. Salgado, “Shear Strength and Stiffness of Sands Containing Plastic or Nonplastic Fines,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 135, no. 9, pp. 1167–1178, Sep. 2009.
[19] J. Yang and X. Q. Gu, “Shear stiffness of granular material at small strains: does it depend on grain size?,” Geotechnique, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 165–179, Feb. 2013.
[20] G. C. Cho and J. C. Santamarina, “Unsaturated Particulate Materials? Particle-Level Studies,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 84–96, Jan. 2001.
[21] J. Bonal, S. Donohue, and C. Mcnally, “Wavelet analysis of bender element signals,” Geotechnique, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 243–252, Mar. 2012.
[22] M. A. Styler and J. A. Howie, “Combined Time and Frequency Domain Approach to the Interpretation of Bender-Element Tests on Sand,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, vol. 36, no. 5, p. 20120081, Sep. 2013.
[23] M. Irfan and T. Uchimura, “Development and Performance Evaluation of Disk-Type Piezoelectric Transducer for Measurement of Shear and Compression Wave Velocities in Soil,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, pp. 1–25, Sep. 2016.
[24] R. Chaney, K. Demars, E. Brignoli, M. Gotti, and K. Stokoe, “Measurement of Shear Waves in Laboratory Specimens by Means of Piezoelectric Transducers,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 384, Dec. 1996.
[25] K. Ishihara, Soil behaviour in earthquake geotechwasnics. Clarendon Press, 1996.
[26] M. Taiebat and Y. F. Dafalias, “SANISAND: Simple anisotropic sand plasticity model,” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 915–948, Jun. 2008.
[27] S. Yamashita, T. Kawaguchi, Y. Nakata, T. Mikami, T. Fujiwara, and S. Shibuya, “Interpretation of International Parallel Test on The Measurement of Gmax Using Bender Elements,” Soils And Foundations, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 631–650, 2009.
Vol:12 No:11 2018Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007