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Determination of the Optimal DG PV Interconnection Location Using Losses and Voltage Regulation as Assessment Indicators Case Study: ECG 33 kV Sub-Transmission Network
In this paper, CYME Distribution software has been used to assess the impacts of solar Photovoltaic (PV) distributed generation (DG) plant on the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) 33 kV sub-transmission network at different PV penetration levels. As ECG begins to encourage DG PV interconnections within its network, there has been the need to assess the impacts on the sub-transmission losses and voltage contribution. In Tema, a city in Accra - Ghana, ECG has a 33 kV sub-transmission network made up of 20 No. 33 kV buses that was modeled. Three different locations were chosen: The source bus, a bus along the sub-transmission radial network and a bus at the tail end to determine the optimal location for DG PV interconnection. The optimal location was determined based on sub-transmission technical losses and voltage impact. PV capacities at different penetration levels were modeled at each location and simulations performed to determine the optimal PV penetration level. Interconnection at a bus along (or in the middle of) the sub-transmission network offered the highest benefits at an optimal PV penetration level of 80%. At that location, the maximum voltage improvement of 0.789% on the neighboring 33 kV buses and maximum loss reduction of 6.033% over the base case scenario were recorded. Hence, the optimal location for DG PV integration within the 33 kV sub-transmission utility network is at a bus along the sub-transmission radial network.
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[1] Ghana Grid Company Limited (GRIDCo), 2014 Electricity Supply Plan: GRIDCo, Tema: 2014.
[2] Ministry of Energy, Republic of Ghana: National Energy Policy: February, 2010.
[3] International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Working Paper, “Renewable Energy Technologies: Cost analysis series, Volume 1: Power sector: Issue 4/5, Solar Photovoltaics”, June 2012. p.12 – 13.
[4] S. J. Lewis, “Analysis and Management of the Impacts of a High Penetration of Photovoltaic Systems in an Electricity Distribution Network.” Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Asia (ISGT).” p.1 – 7, IEEE PES, 2011.
[5] A. Sheikhi, A. Maani, F. Safe, A. M. Ranjbar, “Distributed Generation Penetration Impact on Distribution Networks Loss” International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ ’13), Spain 20th – 22nd March, 2013.
[6] Lucian Ioan Dulau, Mihail Abrudaen, Dorin Bica, “Effects of Distributed Generation on Electric Power Systems.” The 7th International Conference in Interdisciplinarity in Engineering (INTER – ENG 2013), Pg. 681 – 686, 2013.
[7] Abraham Ellis, “Grid operations and High penetration PV”, Sandia National Laboratories. Utility/Lab workshop on PV Technology and Systems, November 8 – 9, 2010, Tempe, Arizona. Available: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/2010ulw_ellis.pdf
[8] Wei Song, Xinghua Zhou, Xiaolong Liu, Hongting Zhou, “A study on impacts of Distributed Generation voltage in Distribution network system.” Asia Pacific Energy Equipment Engineering Research Conference (AP3ER 2015), 2015.
[9] Global Energy Consulting Engineers India, “National Technical and Commercial Loss Study for ECG & VRA/NEDCo, Ghana” submitted to the Ministry of Energy, Government of Ghana, 2012.
[10] IEEE Standards Coordination Committee 21, “IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std. 1547™, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems” IEEE, 3 Park Avenue New York (NY), 15th April 2009
[11] Ing. Godfred Mensah, “Basic System Planning for ECG Staff.”, System Planning Division, Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), November 2015.
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