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Digital Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Publications Count: 29016

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Development of a Real-Time Simulink Based Robotic System to Study Force Feedback Mechanism during Instrument-Object Interaction
Robotic surgery is used to enhance minimally invasive surgical procedure. It provides greater degree of freedom for surgical tools but lacks of haptic feedback system to provide sense of touch to the surgeon. Surgical robots work on master-slave operation, where user is a master and robotic arms are the slaves. Current, surgical robots provide precise control of the surgical tools, but heavily rely on visual feedback, which sometimes cause damage to the inner organs. The goal of this research was to design and develop a realtime Simulink based robotic system to study force feedback mechanism during instrument-object interaction. Setup includes three VelmexXSlide assembly (XYZ Stage) for three dimensional movement, an end effector assembly for forceps, electronic circuit for four strain gages, two Novint Falcon 3D gaming controllers, microcontroller board with linear actuators, MATLAB and Simulink toolboxes. Strain gages were calibrated using Imada Digital Force Gauge device and tested with a hard-core wire to measure instrument-object interaction in the range of 0-35N. Designed Simulink model successfully acquires 3D coordinates from two Novint Falcon controllers and transfer coordinates to the XYZ stage and forceps. Simulink model also reads strain gages signal through 10-bit analog to digital converter resolution of a microcontroller assembly in real time, converts voltage into force and feedback the output signals to the Novint Falcon controller for force feedback mechanism. Experimental setup allows user to change forward kinematics algorithms to achieve the best-desired movement of the XYZ stage and forceps. This project combines haptic technology with surgical robot to provide sense of touch to the user controlling forceps through machine-computer interface.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):


[1] Jon G. Gould and W. Scott Melvin, Surgical Robotics Chapter 6, Master of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgery, 3rd Edition by Nathaniel J. Sopher, Lee L. Swanstrom and W. Stephen Eubanks, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
[2] K. Cleary, A. Melzer, V. Watsonm G. Kronreif, and D. Stoianovici, “Interventional Robotic Systems: Applications and Technology State-of-the-art,” Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies, Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 101-113, 2006
[3] C.R. Wagner, N. Stylopoulos, and R.D. Howe, “The Role of Force Feedback in Surgery: Analysis of Blunt Dissection” in 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Pp.1-7, Orlando, Fl, USA 2002
[4] Alt, S. J.; Worrell, B.”More Surgeons do Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery,’ Health Care Strategic Management April 2004, pp. 11-19
[5] Wagner CR, Howe RD. Force Feedback Benefit Depends on Experience in Multiple Degree of Freedom Robotic Surgery Task. IEEE Transactions on Robotics. 2007;23(6):1235–1240.
[6] Ortmaier T, Deml B, Kuebler B, et al. Robot assisted force feedback surgery. In: Ferre M, Buss M, Aracil R, et al., editors. Advances in Telerobotics, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics (STAR) Vol. 31. Springer; New York: 2007. pp. 341–358.
[7] Wagner CR, Stylopoulos N, Jackson PG, Howe RD, The Benefit of Force Feedback in Surgery: Examination of Blunt Dissection. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 2007; 16(3) 252-262
[8] Xin H. Zelek JS., Carnahan H. Laproscopi Surgery, perceptual limitations and force: A review, First Canadian Student Conference on Biomedical Computing; Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 2006
[9] Wagner CR, Howe RD, Force Feedback Benefit Depends on Experience in Multiple Degree of Freedom Robotic Surgery Task, IEEE Transaction on Robotics, 2007;23(6): 1235-1240
[10] Dargahi J, Sedaghati R, Singh H, Najarian S. Modeling and Testing of an Endoscopic Piezoelectric-based Tactile Sensor, Mechatronics, 2007;17(8):462-467
[11] Kuebler B, Seibold U, Hirzinger G. Development of actuated and sensor integrated forceps for minimally invasive robotic surgery. International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery. 2005; 1(3): 96–107.
[12] Zemiti N, Morel G, Ortmaier T, Bonnet N. Mechatronic design of a new robot for force control in minimally invasive surgery. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics. 2007; 12(2):143–153.
[13] Ortmaier T, Deml B, Kuebler B, et al. Robot assisted force feedback surgery. In: Ferre M, Buss M, Aracil R, et al., editors. Advances in Telerobotics, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics (STAR) Vol. 31. Springer; New York: 2007. pp. 341–358.
[14] Application of Haptic Feedback to Robotic Surgery by Brian T. Bethea, Md, Allison M. Okamura, PhD, Masaya Kitagawa, MS, Torin P. Fitton, MD,Stephen M. Cattaneo, MD, Vincent L. Gott, MD,William A. Baumgartner, MD and David D. TYuh, MD..
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