Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index


Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
10002096
Dynamic Behavior of the Nanostructure of Load-bearing Biological Materials
Abstract:
Typical load-bearing biological materials like bone, mineralized tendon and shell, are biocomposites made from both organic (collagen) and inorganic (biomineral) materials. This amazing class of materials with intrinsic internally designed hierarchical structures show superior mechanical properties with regard to their weak components from which they are formed. Extensive investigations concentrating on static loading conditions have been done to study the biological materials failure. However, most of the damage and failure mechanisms in load-bearing biological materials will occur whenever their structures are exposed to dynamic loading conditions. The main question needed to be answered here is: What is the relation between the layout and architecture of the load-bearing biological materials and their dynamic behavior? In this work, a staggered model has been developed based on the structure of natural materials at nanoscale and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to study the dynamic behavior of the structure of load-bearing biological materials to answer why the staggered arrangement has been selected by nature to make the nanocomposite structure of most of the biological materials. The results showed that the staggered structures will efficiently attenuate the stress wave rather than the layered structure. Furthermore, such staggered architecture is effectively in charge of utilizing the capacity of the biostructure to resist both normal and shear loads. In this work, the geometrical parameters of the model like the thickness and aspect ratio of the mineral inclusions selected from the typical range of the experimentally observed feature sizes and layout dimensions of the biological materials such as bone and mineralized tendon. Furthermore, the numerical results validated with existing theoretical solutions. Findings of the present work emphasize on the significant effects of dynamic behavior on the natural evolution of load-bearing biological materials and can help scientists to design bioinspired materials in the laboratories.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):

References:

[1] J. Y. Rho, L. Kuhn Spearing, and P. Zioupos, "Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone," Medical engineering & physics, vol. 20, pp. 92-102, 1998.
[2] M. A. Meyers, P. Y. Chen, A. Y. M. Lin, and Y. Seki, "Biological materials: structure and mechanical properties," Progress in Materials Science, vol. 53, pp. 1-206, 2008.
[3] S. Weiner and H. D. Wagner, "The material bone: structure-mechanical function relations," Annual Review of Materials Science, vol. 28, pp. 271-298, 1998.
[4] R. Puxkandl, I. Zizak, O. Paris, J. Keckes, W. Tesch, S. Bernstorff, et al., "Viscoelastic properties of collagen: synchrotron radiation investigations and structural model," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, vol. 357, pp. 191-197, 2002.
[5] R. Menig, M. Meyers, M. Meyers, and K. Vecchio, "Quasi-static and dynamic mechanical response of Strombus gigas (conch) shells," Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 297, pp. 203-211, 2001.
[6] J. D. Currey, The mechanical adaptations of bones. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
[7] P. D. Delmas, R. P. Tracy, B. L. Riggs, and K. G. Mann, "Identification of the noncollagenous proteins of bovine bone by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis," Calcified tissue international, vol. 36, pp. 308-316, 1984.
[8] P. Fratzl and R. Weinkamer, "Nature’s hierarchical materials," Progress in Materials Science, vol. 52, pp. 1263-1334, 2007.
[9] H. D. Espinosa, J. E. Rim, F. Barthelat, and M. J. Buehler, "Merger of structure and material in nacre and bone perspectives on de novo biomimetic materials," Progress in Materials Science, vol. 54, pp. 1059- 1100, 2009.
[10] R. O. Ritchie, "The conflicts between strength and toughness," Nature Materials, vol. 10, pp. 817-822, 2011.
[11] Y. Shao, H.-P. Zhao, and X.-Q. Feng, "On flaw tolerance of nacre: a theoretical study," Journal of The Royal Society Interface, vol. 11, p. 20131016, 2014.
[12] H. Gao, B. Ji, I. L. Jäger, E. Arzt, and P. Fratzl, "Materials become insensitive to flaws at nanoscale: lessons from nature," Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences, vol. 100, pp. 5597-5600, 2003.
[13] B. Ji and H. Gao, "Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 52, pp. 1963-1990, 2004.
[14] B. Ji and H. Gao, "A study of fracture mechanisms in biological nanocomposites via the virtual internal bond model," Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 366, pp. 96-103, 2004.
[15] B. Ji, H. Gao, and K. Jimmy Hsia, "How do slender mineral crystals resist buckling in biological materials?," Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol. 84, pp. 631-641, 2004.
[16] B. Ji, H. Gao, and T. Wang, "Flow stress of biomorphous metal–matrix composites," Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 386, pp. 435- 441, 2004.
[17] B. Ji and H. Gao, "Elastic properties of nanocomposite structure of bone," Composites science and technology, vol. 66, pp. 1212-1218, 2006.
[18] R. A. Robinson, "An electron-microscopic study of the crystalline inorganic component of bone and its relationship to the organic matrix," The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, vol. 34, pp. 389-476, 1952.
[19] R. A. Robinson and M. L. Watson, "Collagen‐crystal relationships in bone as seen in the electron microscope," The anatomical record, vol. 114, pp. 383-409, 1952.
[20] R. A. Robinson and M. L. Watson, "Crystal-collagen relationships in bone as observed in the electron microscope. III. Crystal and collagen morphology as a function of age," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 60, pp. 596-630, 1955.
[21] Z. Molnar, "Additional observations on bone crystal dimensions," Clin. Orthop, vol. 17, pp. 38-42, 1960.
[22] A. S. Posner, "Crystal chemistry of bone mineral," Physiological reviews, vol. 49, pp. 760-792, 1969.
[23] J. Moradian-Oldak, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, W. Landis, and W. Traub, "Electron imaging and diffraction study of individual crystals of bone, mineralized tendon and synthetic carbonate apatite," Connective tissue research, vol. 25, pp. 219-228, 1991.
[24] W. Landis, M. Song, A. Leith, L. McEwen, and B. McEwen, "Mineral and organic matrix interaction in normally calcifying tendon visualized in three dimensions by high-voltage electron microscopic tomography and graphic image reconstruction," Journal of structural biology, vol. 110, pp. 39-54, 1993.
[25] V. Ziv and S. Weiner, "Bone crystal sizes: a comparison of transmission electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction line width broadening techniques," Connective tissue research, vol. 30, pp. 165-175, 1994.
[26] W. Landis, "The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix," Bone, vol. 16, pp. 533-544, 1995.
[27] M. A. Rubin, I. Jasiuk, J. Taylor, J. Rubin, T. Ganey, and R. P. Apkarian, "TEM analysis of the nanostructure of normal and osteoporotic human trabecular bone," Bone, vol. 33, pp. 270-282, 2003.
[28] T. Hassenkam, G. E. Fantner, J. A. Cutroni, J. C. Weaver, D. E. Morse, and P. K. Hansma, "High-resolution AFM imaging of intact and fractured trabecular bone," Bone, vol. 35, pp. 4-10, 2004.
[29] H. Gao, "Application of fracture mechanics concepts to hierarchical biomechanics of bone and bone-like materials," International Journal of Fracture, vol. 138, pp. 101-137, 2006.
[30] Z. Zhang, Y. W. Zhang, and H. Gao, "On optimal hierarchy of loadbearing biological materials," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 278, pp. 519-525, 2011.
[31] B. Borah, G. J. Gross, T. E. Dufresne, T. S. Smith, M. D. Cockman, P. A. Chmielewski, et al., "Three-dimensional microimaging (MRμI and μCT), finite element modeling, and rapid prototyping provide unique insights into bone architecture in osteoporosis," The anatomical record, vol. 265, pp. 101-110, 2001.
[32] H. Gong, M. Zhang, L. Qin, and Y. Hou, "Regional variations in the apparent and tissue-level mechanical parameters of vertebral trabecular bone with aging using micro-finite element analysis," Annals of biomedical engineering, vol. 35, pp. 1622-1631, 2007.
[33] X. N. Dong, T. Guda, H. R. Millwater, and X. Wang, "Probabilistic failure analysis of bone using a finite element model of mineral–collagen composites," Journal of biomechanics, vol. 42, pp. 202-209, 2009.
[34] Q. Luo, R. Nakade, X. Dong, Q. Rong, and X. Wang, "Effect of mineral–collagen interfacial behavior on the microdamage progression in bone using a probabilistic cohesive finite element model," Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials, vol. 4, pp. 943-952, 2011.
[35] F. Yuan, S. R. Stock, D. R. Haeffner, J. D. Almer, D. C. Dunand, and L. C. Brinson, "A new model to simulate the elastic properties of mineralized collagen fibril," Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, vol. 10, pp. 147-160, 2011.
[36] T. J. Vaughan, C. T. McCarthy, and L. M. McNamara, "A three-scale finite element investigation into the effects of tissue mineralisation and lamellar organisation in human cortical and trabecular bone," Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 12, pp. 50-62, 2012.
[37] A. Barkaoui and R. Hambli, "Nanomechanical properties of mineralised collagen microfibrils based on finite elements method: biomechanical role of cross-links," Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering, vol. 17, pp. 1590-1601, 2014.
[38] A. Barkaoui and R. Hambli, "Finite element 3D modeling of mechanical behavior of mineralized collagen microfibrils," Journal of Applied Biomaterials and Biomechanics, vol. 9, pp. 199-205, 2011.
[39] C. C. Chen and R. Clifton, "Asymptotic solutions for wave propagation in elastic and viscoelastic bilaminates," in Midwestern Mechanics Conference, 14 th, Norman, Okla, 1975, pp. 399-417.
[40] Y. Oved, G. E. Luttwak, and Z. Rosenberg, "Shock wave propagation in layered composites," Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 12, pp. 84-96, 1978.
[41] N. Chandra, C. Xianglei, and A. Rajendran, "The effect of material heterogeneity on the shock response of layered systems in plate impact tests," Journal of composites technology & research, vol. 24, pp. 232- 238, 2002.
[42] S. Zhuang, G. Ravichandran, and D. E. Grady, "An experimental investigation of shock wave propagation in periodically layered composites," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 51, pp. 245-265, 2003.
[43] X. Chen and N. Chandra, "The effect of heterogeneity on plane wave propagation through layered composites," Composites science and technology, vol. 64, pp. 1477-1493, 2004.
[44] X. Chen, N. Chandra, and A. Rajendran, "Analytical solution to the plate impact problem of layered heterogeneous material systems," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 41, pp. 4635-4659, 2004.
[45] I. Jäger and P. Fratzl, "Mineralized collagen fibrils: a mechanical model with a staggered arrangement of mineral particles," Biophysical Journal, vol. 79, pp. 1737-1746, 2000.
[46] H. A. Lowenstam and S. Weiner, On biomineralization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
[47] S. J. Eppell, W. Tong, J. L. Katz, L. Kuhn, and M. J. Glimcher, "Shape and size of isolated bone mineralites measured using atomic force microscopy," Journal of orthopaedic research, vol. 19, pp. 1027-1034, 2001.
Vol:12 No:10 2018Vol:12 No:09 2018Vol:12 No:08 2018Vol:12 No:07 2018Vol:12 No:06 2018Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007