Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Empirical Study on Causes of Project Delays
Renowned offshore organizations are drifting towards collaborative exertion to win and implement international projects for business gains. However, devoid of financial constraints, with the availability of skilled professionals, and despite improved project management practices through state-of-the-art tools and techniques, project delays have become a norm these days. This situation calls for exploring the factor(s) affecting the bonding between project management performance and project success. In the context of the well-known 3M’s of project management (that is, manpower, machinery, and materials), machinery and materials are dependent upon manpower. Because the body of knowledge inveterate on the influence of national culture on men, hence, the realization of the impact on the link between project management performance and project success need to be investigated in detail to arrive at the possible cause(s) of project delays. This research initiative was, therefore, undertaken to fill the research gap. The unit of analysis for the proposed research excretion was the individuals who had worked on skyscraper construction projects. In reverent studies, project management is best described using construction examples. It is due to this reason that the project oriented city of Dubai was chosen to reconnoiter on causes of project delays. A structured questionnaire survey was disseminated online with the courtesy of the Project Management Institute local chapter to carry out the cross-sectional study. The Construction Industry Institute, Austin, of the United States of America along with 23 high-rise builders in Dubai were also contacted by email requesting for their contribution to the study and providing them with the online link to the survey questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was warranted using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.70. The appropriateness of sampling adequacy and homogeneity in variance was ensured by keeping Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity in the range ≥ 0.60 and < 0.05, respectively. Factor analysis was used to verify construct validity. During exploratory factor analysis, all items were loaded using a threshold of 0.4. Four hundred and seventeen respondents, including members from top management, project managers, and project staff, contributed to the study. The link between project management performance and project success was significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed), and 0.05 level (2-tailed) for Pearson’s correlation. Before initiating the moderator analysis test for linearity, multicollinearity, outliers, leverage points and influential cases, test for homoscedasticity and normality were carried out which are prerequisites for conducting moderator review. The moderator analysis, using a macro named PROCESS, was performed to verify the hypothesis that national culture has an influence on the said link. The empirical findings, when compared with Hofstede's results, showed high power distance as the cause of construction project delays in Dubai. The research outcome calls for the project sponsors and top management to reshape their project management strategy and allow for low power distance between management and project personnel for timely completion of projects.


[1] Efthymiopoulos, M. P. (2016). Cyber Security in Smart City of Dubai. 11th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security: ICCWS2016, Academic Conferences and publishing limited.
[2] Zahlan, R. S. (2016). The origins of the United Arab Emirates: A political and social history of the Trucial States, Routledge.
[3] Ulrichsen, K. C. (2016). The Gulf and the Global Economy. The Gulf States in International Political Economy, Springer: 15-35.
[4] Nyarko, Y. (2010). The United Arab Emirates: some lessons in economic development.
[5] Zahlan, R. S. (2016). The Making of the Modern Gulf States: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman, Routledge.
[6] Zaidan, E. (2016). "The impact of cultural distance on local residents perception of tourism development: The case of Dubai in UAE." Turizam: znanstveno-stručni časopis 64(1): 109-126.
[7] Khan, M. U. H. (2012). "Stability and Sustainability of UAE Macro-Economy." Defence Journal 16(3): 1H.
[8] Korusiewicz, M. "Places in placelessness—notes on the aesthetic and the strategies of place‑making."
[9] Domar, E. D. (1947). "Expansion and employment." The American Economic Review 37(1): 34-55.
[10] Harrod, R. F. (1948). Towards a dynamic economics, some recent developments of economic theory and their application to policy.
[11] Myers, D. (2013). Construction economics: A new approach, Routledge.
[12] Turin, D. A. (1969). The Construction Industry: Its Economic Significance and Its Role in Development. Tables, Graphs, & Appendices, University College Environmental Research Group.
[13] Donnges, C. (2010). "Addressing unemployment and poverty through infrastructure development as a crisis-response strategy." Poverty and Sustainable Development in Asia: 275.
[14] Carroll, T. (2016). Project delivery in business-as-usual organizations, CRC Press.
[15] PMI Annual Report 2014, Retrieved August 9, 2016 from the World Wide Web: http://investors.pmi.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=146476&p=irol-reportsannual.
[16] Kossmann, M. (2016). Requirements Management: How to Ensure You Achieve what You Need from Your Projects. Routledge.
[17] Munns, A. and B. F. Bjeirmi (1996). "The role of project management in achieving project success." International Journal of project management 14(2): 81-87.
[18] Davis, K. (2016). "A method to measure success dimensions relating to individual stakeholder groups." International Journal of Project Management 34(3): 480-493.
[19] Neves, F. G., et al. (2016). Success Lies in the Eye of the Beholder: The Mismatch Between Perceived and Real IT Project Management Performance. 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), IEEE.
[20] Morris, P. W. and G. H. Hough (1987). "The anatomy of major projects: A study of the reality of project management."
[21] Larson, E. W. and D. H. Gobeli (1989). "Significance of project management structure on development success." IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 36(2): 119-125.
[22] Deutsch, M. S. (1991). "An exploratory analysis relating the software project management process to project success." IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 38(4): 365-375.
[23] Pinto, M. B. and J. K. Pinto (1991). Determinants of cross-functional cooperation in the project implementation process, Project Management Institute.
[24] Neumann, P. J., et al. (1994). "The cost of a successful delivery with in vitro fertilization." New England Journal of Medicine 331(4): 239-243.
[25] Shrnhur, A. J., et al. (1997). "Mapping the dimensions of project success." Project management journal 28(2): 5-13.
[26] Pinto, J. K. and D. P. Slevin (1988). Critical success factors across the project life cycle, Project Management Institute.
[27] Lipovetsky, S., et al. (1997). "The relative importance of project success dimensions." R&D Management 27(2): 97-106.
[28] Wideman, R. M. (1990). "Total project management of complex projects improving performance with modern techniques." Presentations in five cities in India for The Consultancy Development Centre, New Delhi, India.
[29] Shen, L., et al. (2016). "Improving Sustainability Performance for Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Projects." Sustainability 8(3): 289.
[30] Bryde, D. J. (2003). "Modelling project management performance." International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 20(2): 229-254.
[31] Hodgson, D. E. and S. Paton (2016). "Understanding the professional project manager: cosmopolitans, locals and identity work." International Journal of Project Management 34(2): 352-364.
[32] Ramos, P. A. and C. M. d. M. Mota (2016). "Exploratory study regarding how cultural perspectives can influence the perceptions of project success in Brazilian companies." Production 26(1): 105-114.
[33] Löckenhoff, C. E., et al. (2009). "Perceptions of aging across 26 cultures and their culture-level associates." Psychology and aging 24(4): 941.
[34] Ramalingam, S., et al. (2014). "Achieving reliability in transnational work on complex projects: new directions for research." Engineering Project Organization Journal 4(4): 193-208.
[35] Lane, J.-E. and S. Ersson (2016). Culture and politics: a comparative approach, Routledge.
[36] De Bony, J. (2010). "Project management and national culture: A Dutch–French case study." International Journal of project management 28(2): 173-182.
[37] Li, C., et al. (2016). "Embracing the foreign: Cultural attractiveness and international strategy." Strategic Management Journal.
[38] Adekunle, O. (2015). "Factorial Causative Assesments and Effects of Building Construction Project Delays in Osun State, Nigeria." Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology 2015.
[39] Ofori, G. (2016). "Construction in Developing Countries: Current imperatives and potential." Creating built environments of new opportunities 1: 39.
[40] Bagaya, O. and J. Song (2016). "Empirical Study of Factors Influencing Schedule Delays of Public Construction Projects in Burkina Faso." Journal of Management in Engineering: 05016014.
[41] Vereen, S. C., et al. (2016). "Development and comparative analysis of construction industry labor productivity metrics." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management: 04016020.
[42] Shirowzhan, M., et al. (2016). "Evaluating Delay Factors in the Construction and Operation of Port Operational Areas." Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 8(2S): 732-763.
[43] Wang, T., et al. (2016). "Relationships among Risk Management, Partnering, and Contractor Capability in International EPC Project Delivery." Journal of Management in Engineering: 04016017.
[44] Sha'ar, K., et al. (2016). "Design–construction interface problems in large building construction projects." International Journal of Construction Management: 1-13.
[45] Addo, J. (2016). "Delay and Its Effect on The Delivery of Construction Projects In Ghana." African Journal of Applied Research (AJAR) 1(1).
[46] Naoum, S. G. (2016). "Factors influencing labor productivity on construction sites: A state-of-the-art literature review and a survey." International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 65(3): 401-421.
[47] Guo, B. H., et al. (2016). "Predicting safety behavior in the construction industry: Development and test of an integrative model." Safety science 84: 1-11.
[48] Vu, H. A., et al. (2016). "Research on Cost Overrun Risk of Construction Phase of Vietnam Highway International Contracting Project." Engineering 8(03): 86.
[49] Al-Gahtani, K. S., et al. (2016). "Total float management: computerized technique for construction delay analysis." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 43(5): 391-401.
[50] Kumar, D. (2016). "Causes and Effects of Delays in Indian Construction Projects."
[51] Atout, M. M. (2016). "The Reason of Principles of Construction Engineering and Management Being Necessary for Contracting Firms and Their Projects Managers." Reason 1: 45610.
[52] Alvarez-Dionisi, L. E., et al. (2016). "Global Project Management Trends." International Journal of Information Technology Project Management (IJITPM) 7(3): 54-73.
[53] Assbeihat, J. M. (2016). "Factors Affecting Delays on Private Construction Projects." Technology 7(2): 22-33.
[54] Bourne, L. (2016). Stakeholder relationship management: a maturity model for organisational implementation, CRC Press.
[55] Rugenyi, F. (2016). "Assessment of the Influence of Project Management Competence on the Triple Constraint in Projects in Nairobi." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 6(4): 295-309.
[56] Al-Nady, B. A.-H. A., et al. (2016). "The role of time, communication, and cost management on project management success: an empirical study on sample of construction projects customers in Makkah City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia." International Journal of Services and Operations Management 23(1): 76-112.
[57] Construction Industry Institute (CII), Retrieved August 9, 2016 from the World Wide Web: https://kb.construction-institute.org/knowledge-areas/general-cii-information/topics/cii%20annual%20reports/pubs/ar-2015
[58] Ahmed, R. and N. A. bin Mohamad (2014). "Mapping Project Manager’s Leadership Competencies and Styles to Project Success: A Theoretical Framework." The Journal of Modern Project Management 2(2).
[59] Degravel, D., et al. (2016). "The'fluid paradigm': the impact of national culture on small business management." Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development 9(1): 62-87.
[60] Kirkman, B. L., et al. (2016). "Culture and teams." Current Opinion in Psychology 8: 137-142.
[61] Dwivedula, R., et al. (2016). "Personality and work motivation as determinants of project success: the mediating role of organisational and professional commitment." International Journal of Management Development 1(3): 229-245.
[62] Hess, U., et al. (2016). "Judging facial emotion expressions in context: the influence of culture and self-construal orientation." Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 40(1): 55-64.
[63] Liu, Y. and T. Almor (2016). "How culture influences the way entrepreneurs deal with uncertainty in inter-organizational relationships: The case of returnee versus local entrepreneurs in China." International Business Review 25(1): 4-14.
[64] Ralston, D. A., et al. (1996). "The cosmopolitan Chinese manager: Findings of a study on managerial values across the six regions of China." Journal of International Management 2: 79-110.
[65] Mir, F. A. and A. H. Pinnington (2014). "Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success." International Journal of project management 32(2): 202-217.
[66] Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods.
[67] Eston, R. G. and A. V. Rowlands (2000). "Stages in the development of a research project: putting the idea together." British journal of sports medicine 34(1): 59-64.
[68] Hepp, A., et al. (2016). Introduction. The Communicative Construction of Europe, Springer: 1-12.
[69] Martinez, L. V., et al. (2016). "Identity Management and Relational Culture in Interfaith Marital Communication in a United States Context: A Qualitative Study." Journal of Intercultural Communication Research: 1-23.
[70] Mikkonen, K., et al. (2016). "Culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students’ experiences of learning in a clinical environment: a systematic review of qualitative studies." International journal of nursing studies 54: 173-187.
[71] Leedy, P. D. and J. Ormrod (2001). Practical research and design, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merryll Prentice Hall.
[72] Sheperis, C. J., et al. (2016). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, Pearson.
[73] Rajasekar, S., et al. (2006). "Research methodology." arXiv preprint physics/0601009.
[74] Zhang, J., et al. (2016). "A study on statistical methods used in six journals of library and information science." Online Information Review 40(3).
[75] Hakim, C. (1987). Research design. Allen Unwin, London.
[76] Ahmed, R. and N. Azmi bin Mohamad (2016). "Exploring the Relationship Between Multi-Dimensional Top Management Support and Project Success: An International Study." Engineering Management Journal 28(1): 54-67.
[77] Hofstede, G. and M. H. Bond (1984). "Hofstede's culture dimensions an independent validation using Rokeach's value survey." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 15(4): 417-433.
[78] Baltes, P. B. (1968). "Longitudinal and cross-sectional sequences in the study of age and generation effects." Human development 11(3): 145-171.
[79] Chassin, L., et al. (1986). "Changes in peer and parent influence during adolescence: Longitudinal versus cross-sectional perspectives on smoking initiation." Developmental Psychology 22(3): 327.
[80] Raosoft, I. (2004). Sample size calculator.
[81] Kifle, H. and P. Low Kim Cheng (2009). E-government Implementation and Leadership: the Brunei Case Study, Academic Conferences.
[82] Roberts, P., et al. (2006). "Reliability and validity in research." Nursing standard 20(44): 41-45.
[83] Noursis, M. (1985). SPSS: Advanced statistics guide, New York: McGraw-Hill.
[84] McCleave, J. D. (1967). "Homing and orientation of cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) in Yellowstone Lake, with special reference to olfaction and vision." Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada 24(10): 2011-2044.
[85] Meng, C., et al. (2016). "Dimension reduction techniques for the integrative analysis of multi-omics data." Briefings in bioinformatics: bbv108.
[86] Croux, C., et al. (2003). "Fitting multiplicative models by robust alternating regressions." Statistics and Computing 13(1): 23-36.
[87] Pison, G., et al. (2003). "Robust factor analysis." Journal of Multivariate Analysis 84(1): 145-172.
[88] Conway, J. M. and A. I. Huffcutt (2003). "A review and evaluation of exploratory factor analysis practices in organizational research." Organizational research methods 6(2): 147-168.
[89] Sochalski, J. (2004). "Is more better?: the relationship between nurse staffing and the quality of nursing care in hospitals." Medical care 42(2): II-67-II-73.
[90] Mertler, C. A. and R. A. Vannatta (2002). "Advanced and multivariate statistical methods." Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak.
[91] Barton, M., et al. (2016). "Moving Beyond Univariate Post-Hoc Testing in Exercise Science: A Primer on Descriptive Discriminate Analysis." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport: 1-11.
[92] Hesamian, G. (2016). "One-way ANOVA based on interval information." International Journal of Systems Science 47(11): 2682-2690.
[93] Pohlert, T. and M. T. Pohlert (2016). "Package ‘PMCMR’."
[94] Hsu, P. S., et al. (2016). "A cross‐cultural study of the effect of a graph‐oriented computer‐assisted project‐based learning environment on middle school students' science knowledge and argumentation skills." Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 32(1): 51-76.
[95] Hayes, A. F. (2012). Process: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling.
[96] Stoermer, S., et al. (2016). "Culture matters: the influence of national culture on inclusion climate." Cross Cultural & Strategic Management 23(2): 287-305.
[97] Hughes, D. L., et al. (2016). Project Failure and Its Contributing Factors. Success and Failure of IS/IT Projects, Springer: 3-25.
[98] Marle, F. and L.-A. Vidal (2016). Limits of Traditional Project Management Approaches When Facing Complexity. Managing Complex, High Risk Projects, Springer: 53-74.
[99] Cantamessa, M., et al. (2016). "Design for innovation–A methodology to engineer the innovation diffusion into the development process." Computers in Industry 75: 46-57.
[100] Feldman, A. and S. Msibi (2016). "Influence of cross-cultural leadership on organizational culture: Arcelormittal, Newcastle, a South African perspective."
[101] Jackson, K. and R. Rasheed (2016). "Communication, Culture, and Discord: A Lesson in Leadership Failure." Handbook of Research on Effective Communication, Leadership, and Conflict Resolution: 182.
[102] Hyman, A. (2016). "Global Project Management: The Availability and Applicability of International Project Frameworks When Traversing Geography and Culture."
[103] Xing, Y., et al. (2016). "Intercultural influences on managing African employees of Chinese firms in Africa: Chinese managers’ HRM practices." International Business Review 25(1): 28-41.
[104] Cui, M., et al. (2016). "A cultural integration path for cross-border mergers and acquisitions from the perspective of acculturation: a double case study." Nankai Business Review International 7(3).
[105] Liyanage, C., et al. (2016). "Cultural competence–a success factor in NGO projects?" Built Environment Project and Asset Management 6(2): 232-246.
[106] Rodrigues, J. S., et al. (2016). National Culture and Planning and Control of Projects in Portugal. Project Management and Engineering Research, 2014, Springer: 59-69.
[107] Bachmann, J.-T., et al. (2016). "Toward a Better Understanding of the Association Between Strategic Planning and Entrepreneurial Orientation—The Moderating Role of National Culture." Journal of International Management.
[108] Baptista, A., et al. (2016). "Project Management Methodologies as Main Tool for Current Challenges in Global Economy Driving Historical Changes." Journal of Advanced Management Science Vol 4(2).
[109] Fox, S., et al. (2016). "Reframing the influence of national culture with theory-based multi-resolution simulation models." Management Research Review 39(5).
[110] Chen, Y. Q., et al. (2015). "Risk perception and propensity in bid/no-bid decision-making of construction projects." Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 22(1): 2-20.
Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007