Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Juxtaposing South Africa’s Private Sector and Its Public Service Regarding Innovation Diffusion, to Explore the Obstacles to E-Governance
Despite the benefits of innovation diffusion in the South African public service, implementation thereof seems to be problematic, particularly with regard to e-governance which would enhance the quality of service delivery, especially accessibility, choice, and mode of operation. This paper reports on differences between the public service and the private sector in terms of innovation diffusion. Innovation diffusion will be investigated to explore identified obstacles that are hindering successful implementation of e-governance. The research inquiry is underpinned by the diffusion of innovation theory, which is premised on the assumption that innovation has a distinct channel, time, and mode of adoption within the organisation. A comparative thematic document analysis was conducted to investigate organisational differences with regard to innovation diffusion. A similar approach has been followed in other countries, where the same conceptual framework has been used to guide document analysis in studies in both the private and the public sectors. As per the recommended conceptual framework, three organisational characteristics were emphasised, namely the external characteristics of the organisation, the organisational structure, and the inherent characteristics of the leadership. The results indicated that the main difference in the external characteristics lies in the focus and the clientele of the private sector. With regard to organisational structure, private organisations have veto power, which is not the case in the public service. Regarding leadership, similarities were observed in social and environmental responsibility and employees’ attitudes towards immediate supervision. Differences identified included risk taking, the adequacy of leadership development, organisational approaches to motivation and involvement in decision making, and leadership style. Due to the organisational differences observed, it is recommended that differentiated strategies be employed to ensure effective innovation diffusion, and ultimately e-governance. It is recommended that the results of this research be used to stimulate discussion on ways to improve collaboration between the mentioned sectors, to capitalise on the benefits of each sector.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):


[1] M. Scerri, “Modes of innovation and the prospects for economic integration in Africa,” Africa Insight, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 80-99, Dec. 2013.
[2] S.O. Popoola and O.O Fagbola, “Innovation capabilities of managers in Nigerian large-scale manufacturing companies,” South African Journal of Information Management, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 593-603, 2014.
[3] E. Itzkin, “How to compete in the perpetual innovation economy,” South African Journal of Information Management, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2000.
[4] M. L. Tushman, and C.A. O’Reilly, “Winning through innovation,” Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
[5] C. Post, “Deep-level team composition and innovation: the mediating roles of psychological safety and cooperative learning,” Group and Organization Management, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 555-588, 2012.
[6] Republic of South Africa, “National Development Plan 2030: Our future – make it work,” Pretoria: Government printer, 2014.
[7] E.M. Rogers, “The diffusion of Innovation (4th Ed.),” New York: Free Press, 1995, pp. 1.
[8] M.A. West, and J.L. Farr, (Eds.), “Innovation and creativity at work: psychological and organizational strategies,” Chichester, UK: Wiley, 1990.
[9] F. Damanpour, “Organisational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 555-590, 1991.
[10] P.R.A. Oeij, “Workplace innovation and its relations with organizational performance and employee commitment,” 2012. Retrieved on 11 May 2015 from http://www.lline.fi/en/article/policy/oeij/workplaceinnovation- and-its-relations-with-organisational-performance-andemployee- commitment.
[11] M.L. Tushman and D. Nadler, “Organizing for innovation,” California Management Review, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 74-92, 1996.
[12] J. Goldenberg, S. Han, D.R. Lehmann, and J.W Hong, “The role of hubs in the adoption process,” Journal of Marketing, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2009.
[13] S.A. Delre, W. Jager, T.H.A. Bijmolt, and M.A Janssen, “Will it spread or not? The effect of social influences and network topology on innovation diffusion,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 27, pp. 267-282, 2010.
[14] R. Kling, “What is social informatics and why does it matter?” D-Lib Magazine, January 1999. Retrieved on 10 June 2015, from http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/ntn.
[15] B. Mbatha, “Web-based technologies as key catalysts in improving work productivity and creativity: the case of the Zululand District Municipality,” Communicare, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 82-95, 2009.
[16] D.S. Malik, “Java programming: program design including data structures,” USA: Thomson Course Technology, 2006.
[17] H.M. Deitel and P.J. Deitel, “How to program (6th Ed.),” New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2005.
[18] R. Agarwal and B.L. Bayus, “The market evolution and sales take-off of product innovation,” Management Science, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1024- 1041, 2002.
[19] V. Mahajan, E. Muller, and F.M. Bass, “New product diffusion models in marketing: a review and directions for research,” Journal of Marketing, vol. 54, pp. 1-26, 1990.
[20] P.N. Golder, and G.J. Tellis, “Growing, Growing, Gone: Cascades, diffusion and turning points in the product life cycle,” Marketing Science, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 207-218, 2004.
[21] G.J. Tellis, S. Stremersch, and E. Yin, “The international take-off of new products: the role of economic, culture and country innovativeness,” Marketing Science, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 188-208, 2003.
[22] J. Eliashberg, and M.S Sawhney, “Modelling goes to Hollywood: predicting individual differences in Movie enjoyment,” Management Science, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1151-1173, 1994.
[23] J.W.C. Arts, R.T Frambach, and T.H.A. Bijmolt, “What really drives innovation adoption by consumers? A meta-analysis on the antecedents of intention versus behaviour,” Working paper, 2006.
[24] L.A. Van Oortmerssen, C.M.J. Van Woerkum, and N. Aarts, “When interaction flows: an exploration of collective creative processes on a collaborative governance board,” Group and Organization Management, pp. 1-29, 2014.
[25] T. Khalo, and S. Hu, “An analysis of e-government in the Department of Home affairs of South Africa,” Journal of US-China Public Administration, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 39-52, 2010.
[26] B. Mbatha, and Z. Lesame, “Diffusion and adoption of information and communication technologies in the public sector: the case of selected government departments in KwaZulu-Natal,” Communicare, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 40-62, 2013.
[27] D. Evans, and D.C. Yen, “E-government: evolving relationship of citizens and government domestic and international development,” Government Information Quarterly, vol. 23, pp. 207-235, 2006.
[28] Y. Kitaw, “E-government in Africa: prospects, challenges and practices,” 2006. Retrieved on the 17th of June 2015, from http://www.friendspartners.org/GLOSAS/Global_University.
[29] L. van Jaarsveldt, “Information technology skills for the South African public service,” Administratio Publica, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 174-192, 2010.
[30] UNESCO, “Harnessing information technology for development in Africa,” 1998. Retrieved on 10 June 2015 from http://www.unesco.org/edu/eduprog/wf/doc.IAI.html.
[31] B. Mbatha, and D.N Ocholla, “Contextualizing the use of ICT’s in the public sector: the case of selected government departments in KwaZulu- Natal,” Mousaion, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 195-210, 2011.
[32] T. Nzimakwe, “Transforming the public service through e-government: Challenges for the future,” Africanus, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 56-68, 2012.
[33] E.A. Tankou, “Political affairs: commemoration if the 2015 African Public Service day (APSD),” 2015. Retrieved on 17 June 2015 from http://pa.au.int/en/content/commemoration-2015-africa-public-serviceday- apsd-under-theme-%E2%80%9C-role-public-services-women-e.
[34] Republic of South Africa, “Medium-term strategic framework (MTSF) 2014-2019,” Pretoria: Government printer, 2014.
[35] B.R. Katzy, “Integrated real-option reasoning and the innovation diffusion curve for decision-making under uncertainty,” IAMOT, pp.1- 10, 2003.
[36] R. Foster, “Innovation: The Attacker’s Advantage,” New York: Summit Books, 1986.
[37] W.J. Abernathy, and J.M. Utterback, “Patterns of Industrial Restructuring,” Technology Review, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1-9, 1978.
[38] E.M. Rogers, “The diffusion of Innovation,” New York: Free Press, 1962.
[39] M.K. Minishi-Majanja, and J. Kiplang’at, “The diffusion of innovation theory as a theoretical framework in library and information science research,” South African Journal of Library and Information Sciences, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 211-224, 2005.
[40] R. Agarwal, M. Ahuja, P.E. Carter, and M. Gans, “Early and late adopters of IT innovations: Extensions to Innovation Diffusion Theory,” 1998. Retrieved on 1 June 2015 from http://discnt. cba.uh.edu/chin/digit98/panel2.pdf.
[41] E.M. Rogers, and K.L. Scott, “The diffusion of innovations model and outreach from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine to Native American Communities,” Draft paper presented at the Pacific Northwest Region, Seattle, 1997, Retrieved on 17 June 2015 from http://nnlm.gov/pnr/eval/rogers.html.
[42] I. England, D. Stewart, and S. Walker, “Information technology adoption in health care: when organizations and technology collide,” Australian Health Review, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 176-185, 2000.
[43] M. Scerri, Economic integration in Africa: The systems of innovation approach, In S. Osha, M. Muchie and P.M. Matlotleng (eds), The Africana world: From fragmentation to unity and renaissance, South Africa: Africa Institute of South Africa, 2012.
[44] E.T. Woldegiorgis, P. Jonck, and A. Goujon, “Regional higher education reform initiatives in Africa: A comparative analysis with the Bologna Process,” International Journal of Higher Education, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 241-253, 2015.
[45] M. Mogalakwe, “The use of documentary research methods in Social Research,” African Sociological Review, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 221-230, 2006.
[46] L. Prior, “Using documents in Social Research,” London: Sage Publications, 2003.
[47] C. Wagner, B. Kawulich, and M. Garner, “Doing social research: a global context,” Berkshire, UK: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2012.
[48] V. Braun, and V. Clarke, “Using thematic analysis in Psychology,” Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3, pp. 77-101, 2006.
[49] J.A. Pearce, and R.B. Robinson, “Strategic Management. Formulation, Implementation, and Control (8th international ed.),” New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
[50] M.Q. Nguyen, and P.V. Nguyen, “The impact of external environment, technology and innovation capacities, and leadership development on organizational performance in food industry. A qualitative study of food enterprises in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,” International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 49-60, 2013.
[51] M.S. Poole, “Organizational innovation: Studies of program change in community agencies. In Kaplan (ed.), pp. 1-13. New York: Springer, 2003.
[52] J. Ferguson, P. Ronayne, and M. Rybacki, “Public Sector Leadership Challenges Are They Different and Does It Matter?” White Paper. Centre of Creative Leadership, 2014.
[53] G.T. Lumpkin, and G.G. Dess, “Clarifying the entrepreneurial construct and linking it to performance,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 21, pp.135-166, 1996.
[54] R. Gill, “Leadership in the public sector – is it different?” Leadership trust, 2009. Retrieved from: http://leadership.org.uk/wpcontent/ uploads/2014/04/671.pdf. Retrieved on 22 June 2015.
[55] E. Sørensen, and J. Torfing, “Enhancing Social Innovation by Rethinking Collaboration, Leadership and Public Governance,” Denmark: Roskilde University, 2013.
[56] J.E. Angolla, and J.B. Van Lille, “Public sector innovation drivers: A process model,” Journal of Social Science, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 165-176, 2013.
[57] L. du Bruyn, “The strategy and structure of international business: Ford 2000 (restructuring in a multinational global organisation)”, Journal of Contemporary Management, vol. 2, 46-56, 2005.
[58] T. Nayager, and J.J. Van Vuuren, “An analysis of an organisational strategy, structure and culture that supports corporate entrepreneurship in established organisations,” South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29-38, 2005.
[59] J.G. Covin, and D.P. Selvin, “A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior,” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 7-25, 1991.
[60] J.J. Müller, “Self-organising structures: theoretical construct or practical reality?” Journal of Public Administration, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 284-295, 2001.
[61] S.B. Koma, “Conceptualization and contextualization of corporate governance in the South African sector: issues, trends, and prospects,” Journal of Public Administration, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 451-459, 2009.
[62] D. Symes, “Fisheries management: in search of good governance,” Fisheries Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 107-114, 1997.
[63] K. Müller, “Organisational innovation: some emerging environmental governance models in South Africa,” Politeia, vol. 26, no. 1, pp, 45-59.
[64] M. Carley and I. Cristie, “Managing sustainable development (2nd ed.). London: Earthscan, 2000, p. 141.
[65] C.W.L. Hill, “International Business: competing in the global market place (4th ed.),” New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2003, pp. 445.
[66] L.J. (Jr) O’Toole, “Implementing public innovations in network settings,” Administration and Society, vol. 29, no. 2, pp, 115-138, 1997.
[67] Z. Zhihong, C. Wei, and Z. Xiaoying, “Leadership in Public Sector: A discussion from theoretical and practical aspects,” Canadian Social Science, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 73-77, 2013.
[68] J. Mares, “25 Differences between Private Sector and Government Managers, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.powermag.com/25- differences-between-private-sector-and-government-managers/. Retrieved on 22 June 2015.
[69] M.J. Emde, “Innovation and Neuro-leadership,” Management Today, pp. 55-56, September 2011.
[70] D.M. West, and J. Lu, “Comparing Technology Innovation in the Private and Public Sectors,” Washington: Governance Studies at Brookings, 2009.
[71] B. Urban, and J. Barreira, “Empirical investigations into firm technology orientation and entrepreneurial orientation,” International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, vol. 7, pp. 329-351, 2010.
[72] B. Urban, and M. Streak, “Product innovation of private health insurers in South Africa and the impact of entrepreneurial orientation,” South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 298-315, 2013.
[73] Y. Li, J. Huang, and M. Tsai, “Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: The role of knowledge creation process,” Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 38, pp. 440-449, 2009.
[74] M.H. Morris, D.F. Kuratko, and J.G. Covin, “Corporate entrepreneurship and innovation,” Mason OH, USA: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2008.
Vol:12 No:05 2018Vol:12 No:04 2018Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007