Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Select areas to restrict search in scientific publication database:
Neurological Manifestations in Patients with HIV Infection in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy
Neurological disorders are the most debilitating of manifestations seen in patients infected with HIV. The clinical profile of neurological manifestations in HIV patients has undergone a shift in recent years with opportunistic infections being controlled with combination anti-retroviral therapy and the advent of drugs which have higher central nervous system penetrability. The aim of this paper is to study the clinical, investigation profile and various neurological disorders in HIV patients on anti‐retroviral therapy. Fifty HIV patients with neurological manifestations were studied. A complete neurological examination including neurocognitive functioning using Montreal Cognitive Assessment and HIV Dementia scale were assessed. Apart from relevant investigations, CD4 count, cerebrovascular fluid analysis, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain were done whenever required. Neurocognitive disorders formed the largest group with 42% suffering from HIV associated Neurocognitive Disorders. Among them, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment was seen in 28%; mild neurocognitive disorder in 12%, and 2% had HIV‐associated dementia. Opportunistic infections of the nervous system accounted for 32%, with meningitis being the most common. Four patients had space occupying lesions of central nervous system; four tuberculomas, and one toxoplasmosis. With the advent of highly active retroviral therapy, HIV patients have longer life spans with suppression of viral load leading to decrease in opportunistic infections of the nervous system. Neurocognitive disorders are now the most common neurological dysfunction seen and thus neurocognitive assessment must be done in all patients with HIV.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):


[1] Annual Report 2013-2014 NACO (Internet). 2013. Available from: http://naco.gov.in/NACO/Quick_Links/Directory_of HIVData/Accessed March 15th 2016.
[2] HIV/AIDS. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/understanding/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed March 17th, 2016.
[3] Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. National Institutes of Health. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/4/adult-and-adolescent-oi-prevention-and-treatment-guidelines/0. Accessed March 17th, 2016.
[4] Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker J T et al. Updated research nosology for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology.2007.1789-99.
[5] Z. Nasreddine. Montreal Cognitive Assessment. (Internet). (Montreal): 2010. Available from http://www.mocatest.org/ Accessed on March 16th 2016.
[6] Sacktor NC, Wong M, Nakasujja N et. al. The International HIV Dementia Scale: a new rapid screening test for HIV dementia. AIDS. 2005; 19(13):1367-74.
[7] Lawton, M.P., and Brody, E.M. “Assessment of older people: Self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living.” Gerontologist. (1969), 9:179-86.
[8] WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related disease in adults and children.2007. (Internet). (place unknown). Available from www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/hivstaging/en/ Accessed on March 16th 2016‎.
[9] Guha D, Nagilla P, Redinger C, et al. Neuronal apoptosis by HIV-1 Vpr: contribution of proinflammatory molecular networks from infected target cells. Journal of Neuroinflammation.2012;9:138
[10] Deshpande AK, Patnaik MM. Non Opportunistic Neurological Manifestations in Human immunodeficiency Virus: An Indian Study. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2005; 7: 2.
[11] Chan LG, Kandiah N, Chua A.HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a South Asian population- contextual application of the 207 criteria. BMJ Open.2012; 2 (1): e000662.
[12] Sharma SK, Dwivedi NC, Kumar N et al. Neurological Manifestation of HIV Infection in North-Eastern Part of India. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2014; 4(1):4-8.
[13] Singh R, Kaur M. Arora D. Neurological complications in late stage hospitalized patients with HIV disease. Ann Indian Academy Neurology. 2011; 14(3):172-77.
[14] Satishchandra P, Nalini A, Gourie-Devi M et al. Profile of neurologic disorders associated with HIV/AIDS from Bangalore, South India (1989-96). The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2000; 111: 14-23.
Vol:12 No:03 2018Vol:12 No:02 2018Vol:12 No:01 2018
Vol:11 No:12 2017Vol:11 No:11 2017Vol:11 No:10 2017Vol:11 No:09 2017Vol:11 No:08 2017Vol:11 No:07 2017Vol:11 No:06 2017Vol:11 No:05 2017Vol:11 No:04 2017Vol:11 No:03 2017Vol:11 No:02 2017Vol:11 No:01 2017
Vol:10 No:12 2016Vol:10 No:11 2016Vol:10 No:10 2016Vol:10 No:09 2016Vol:10 No:08 2016Vol:10 No:07 2016Vol:10 No:06 2016Vol:10 No:05 2016Vol:10 No:04 2016Vol:10 No:03 2016Vol:10 No:02 2016Vol:10 No:01 2016
Vol:9 No:12 2015Vol:9 No:11 2015Vol:9 No:10 2015Vol:9 No:09 2015Vol:9 No:08 2015Vol:9 No:07 2015Vol:9 No:06 2015Vol:9 No:05 2015Vol:9 No:04 2015Vol:9 No:03 2015Vol:9 No:02 2015Vol:9 No:01 2015
Vol:8 No:12 2014Vol:8 No:11 2014Vol:8 No:10 2014Vol:8 No:09 2014Vol:8 No:08 2014Vol:8 No:07 2014Vol:8 No:06 2014Vol:8 No:05 2014Vol:8 No:04 2014Vol:8 No:03 2014Vol:8 No:02 2014Vol:8 No:01 2014
Vol:7 No:12 2013Vol:7 No:11 2013Vol:7 No:10 2013Vol:7 No:09 2013Vol:7 No:08 2013Vol:7 No:07 2013Vol:7 No:06 2013Vol:7 No:05 2013Vol:7 No:04 2013Vol:7 No:03 2013Vol:7 No:02 2013Vol:7 No:01 2013
Vol:6 No:12 2012Vol:6 No:11 2012Vol:6 No:10 2012Vol:6 No:09 2012Vol:6 No:08 2012Vol:6 No:07 2012Vol:6 No:06 2012Vol:6 No:05 2012Vol:6 No:04 2012Vol:6 No:03 2012Vol:6 No:02 2012Vol:6 No:01 2012
Vol:5 No:12 2011Vol:5 No:11 2011Vol:5 No:10 2011Vol:5 No:09 2011Vol:5 No:08 2011Vol:5 No:07 2011Vol:5 No:06 2011Vol:5 No:05 2011Vol:5 No:04 2011Vol:5 No:03 2011Vol:5 No:02 2011Vol:5 No:01 2011
Vol:4 No:12 2010Vol:4 No:11 2010Vol:4 No:10 2010Vol:4 No:09 2010Vol:4 No:08 2010Vol:4 No:07 2010Vol:4 No:06 2010Vol:4 No:05 2010Vol:4 No:04 2010Vol:4 No:03 2010Vol:4 No:02 2010Vol:4 No:01 2010
Vol:3 No:12 2009Vol:3 No:11 2009Vol:3 No:10 2009Vol:3 No:09 2009Vol:3 No:08 2009Vol:3 No:07 2009Vol:3 No:06 2009Vol:3 No:05 2009Vol:3 No:04 2009Vol:3 No:03 2009Vol:3 No:02 2009Vol:3 No:01 2009
Vol:2 No:12 2008Vol:2 No:11 2008Vol:2 No:10 2008Vol:2 No:09 2008Vol:2 No:08 2008Vol:2 No:07 2008Vol:2 No:06 2008Vol:2 No:05 2008Vol:2 No:04 2008Vol:2 No:03 2008Vol:2 No:02 2008Vol:2 No:01 2008
Vol:1 No:12 2007Vol:1 No:11 2007Vol:1 No:10 2007Vol:1 No:09 2007Vol:1 No:08 2007Vol:1 No:07 2007Vol:1 No:06 2007Vol:1 No:05 2007Vol:1 No:04 2007Vol:1 No:03 2007Vol:1 No:02 2007Vol:1 No:01 2007