Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials
One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.
 W. Wang et al., “A comparison of LSM, LSF and LSCo for Solid Oxide electrolyzer anodes”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, 153(11), 2006, A2066-A2070.
 F. Suleman, I. Dincer, & M. Agelin-Chaab, “Environmental impact assessment and comparison of some hydrogen production options”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(21), 2015, 6976-6987.
 A. Brisse and P. Mocoteguy, “A review and comprehensive analysis of degradation mechanisms of solid oxide electrolysis cells”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38, 2013, 15887-15902.
 P. Kazempoor P. and R.J. Braun, “Hydrogen and synthetic fuel production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs)”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 40(9), 2015, 3599-3612.
 A. Nechache and M. Cassir, A. ringuede, “Solid oxide electrolysis cell analysis by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A review”, Journal of Power Sources, 258, 2014, 164-181.
 N. Li et al., “Mitigation of the delamination of LSM anode in Solid Oxide electrolysis cells using Manganese-modified Yttria-Stablized Zirconia”, International Journal on Hydrogen Energy, 38(15), 2013, 6298-6303.
 M. Ni, Michael K.H. Leung, D. Leung, “Technological development of hydrogen production by Solid Oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC)”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(9), 2008, 2337-2354.
 M. Keane, Manoj K. Mahapatra, Atul Verma 1, Prabhakar Singh, “LSM/YSZ interactions and anode delamination in solid oxide electrolysis cells”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37(22), 2012, 16776-16785.
 E. Shin et al., “Polarization mechanism of high temperature electrolysis in a Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM solid oxide cell by parametric impedance analysis”, Solid State Ionics, 232, 2013, 80-96.
 R. B. Cervera, et.al., “Perovskite-Structured BaScO2(OH) as a Novel Proton Conductor: Heavily Hydrated Phase Obtained via Low-Temperature Synthesis”, Chem. Mater. 25, 2013, 1483-1489.
 R. B. Cervera, et.al., “Nanograined Sc-doped BaZrO3 as a proton conducting solid electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs)”, Solid State Ionics, 264, 2014, 1-6.
 M. B. Kakade, K. Bhattacharyya, R. Tewari, R. J. Kshirsagar, A. K. Tyagi, S. Ramanathan, G. P. Kothiyal & D. Das, “Nanocrystalline La0.84Sr0.16MnO3 and NiO-YSZ by Combustion of Metal Nitrate-Citric Acid/Glycine Gel – Phase Evolution and Powder Characteristics”, Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society, 72:3, 2013, 182-190.